Access to Workplace Accommodations to Support Breastfeeding after Passage of the Affordable Care Act
- Women's health issues : official publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
- Published about 5 years ago
This study examines access to workplace accommodations for breastfeeding, as mandated by the Affordable Care Act, and its associations with breastfeeding initiation and duration. We hypothesize that women with access to reasonable break time and private space to express breast milk would be more likely to breastfeed exclusively at 6 months and to continue breastfeeding for a longer duration.
Increasing evidence suggests that reactions to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), particularly in the gut, can be partly or completely mitigated by colostrum- and milk-derived oligosaccharides. Confirmation of this hypothesis could lead to the development of new therapeutic concepts.
Milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) and lactoferrin have been identified as two components that have potential to affect neurodevelopment. While concentrations of some MFGM constituents in infant formulas are within human milk range, they may not be present at optimal or clinically effective levels. However, lactoferrin levels of infant formulas are consistently reported to be lower than human milk. This study sought to provide a novel combination of prebiotics, bovine-derived MFGM, and lactoferrin and assess their influence on neurodevelopment.
This article provides an overview of the composition of human milk, its variation, and its clinical relevance. The composition of human milk is the biological norm for infant nutrition. Human milk also contains many hundreds to thousands of distinct bioactive molecules that protect against infection and inflammation and contribute to immune maturation, organ development, and healthy microbial colonization. Some of these molecules (eg, lactoferrin) are being investigated as novel therapeutic agents. Human milk changes in composition from colostrum to late lactation, within feeds, by gestational age, diurnally, and between mothers. Feeding infants with expressed human milk is increasing.
Evidence linking breastfeeding to reduced risk of developing childhood obesity is inconclusive, yet previous studies have not considered variation in specific components of breast milk that may affect early development.
Milk, in addition to nourishing the neonate, provides a range of complex glycans whose construction ensures a specific enrichment of key members of the gut microbiota in the nursing infant, a consortium known as the milk-oriented microbiome. Milk glycoproteins are thought to function similarly, as specific growth substrates for bifidobacteria common to the breast fed infant gut. Recently, a cell wall-associated endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoBI-1) found in various infant-borne bifidobacteria was shown to remove a range of intactN-linked glycans. We hypothesized that these released oligosaccharide structures can serve as a sole source for the selective growth of bifidobacteria. Here, EndoBI-1 was used to release theseN-glycans from concentrated bovine colostrum at the pilot scale. EndoBI-1-releasedN-glycans supported the rapid growth ofBifidobacterium longumsubsp. infantis, a species that grows well on human milk oligosaccharides, but did not support growth ofBifidobacterium animalissubsp.lactis,a species which does not. ConverselyBifidobacterium longumsubsp. infantisATCC 15697 did not grow on the deglycosylated milk protein fraction clearly demonstrating that the glycan portion of milk glycoproteins provides the key substrate for growth. Mass spectrometry-based profiling revealed thatB.longumsubsp. infantisconsumed 73% of neutral and 92% of sialylatedN-glycans, whileB.animalissubsp.lactisonly degraded 11% of neutral and virtually no (<1%) sialylatedN-glycans. These results provide mechanistic support thatN-linked glycoproteins from milk serve as selective substrates for the enrichment of infant-borne bifidobacteria capable of carrying out the initial deglycosylation. Moreover, releasedN-glycans are better growth substrates than the intact milk glycoproteins suggesting that EndoBI-1 cleavage is a key initial step in consumption of glycoproteins. Finally, the variety ofN-glycans released from bovine milk glycoproteins suggests they may serve as novel prebiotic substrates with selective properties similar to those of human milk oligosaccharides.
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a 6-week, low-dose bovine colostrum (BC) supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and performance decline in soccer players following the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) during a competitive season period.
Heavy exercise causes gut symptoms and, in extreme cases, heat stroke that is due to the increased intestinal permeability of luminal toxins.
Breast milk is a rich nutrient with a temporally dynamic nature. In particular, numerous alterations in the nutritional, immunological and microbiological content occur during the transition from colostrum to mature milk. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of delivery mode on the microbiota of colostrum, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels (bacterial abundance and microbiota network).