SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Cirrhosis

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To compare the early virological effectiveness, sustained virological response and safety of telaprevir 1500 mg/day with telaprevir 2250 mg/day, when combined in triple therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin in Japanese patients with high viral loads of genotype 1 hepatitis C virus.

Concepts: Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Interferon, Hepatitis C, Ribavirin, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A

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It is paramount to understand the epidemiology of chronic hepatitis B to inform national policies on vaccination and screening/testing as well as cost-effectiveness studies. However, information on the national (Scottish) prevalence of chronic hepatitis B by ethnic group is lacking. To estimate the number of people with chronic hepatitis B in Scotland in 2009 by ethnicity, gender and age, the test data from virology laboratories in the four largest cities in Scotland were combined with estimates of the ethnic distribution of the Scottish population. Ethnicity in both the test data and the Scottish population was derived using a name-based ethnicity classification software (OnoMAP; Publicprofiler Ltd, UK). For 2009, we estimated 8720 [95% confidence interval (CI) 7490-10 230] people aged ⩾15 years were living with chronic hepatitis B infection in Scotland. This corresponds to 0·2% (95% CI 0·17-0·24) of the Scottish population aged ⩾15 years. Although East and South Asians make up a small proportion of the Scottish population, they make up 44% of the infected population. In addition, 75% of those infected were aged 15-44 years with almost 60% male. This study quantifies for the first time on a national level the burden of chronic hepatitis B infection by ethnicity, gender and age. It confirms the importance of promoting and targeting ethnic minority groups for hepatitis B testing.

Concepts: Statistics, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, United Kingdom, Hepatitis B, Ethnic group, Hepatitis A, Minority group

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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a heterogeneous disease with both tumor and liver factors being involved.

Concepts: Cancer, Cirrhosis, Liver, Liver disease

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Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is associated with an increased risk of hepatobiliary malignancies. However, little is known about the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) among patients with PSC; current recommendations on screening these patients for HCC are conflicting. We investigated the risk of HCC in patients with PSC with cirrhosis.

Concepts: Cancer, Cirrhosis, Cholangiocarcinoma, Primary sclerosing cholangitis

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The association between vitamin D status and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been well investigated, despite experimental evidence supporting an important role of vitamin D in liver pathophysiology. Our objective was to investigate the association between prediagnostic circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] serum levels and the risk of HCC in a prospective, nested case-control study among 520,000 participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Each case (n = 138) diagnosed between 1992 and 2010 was matched to one control by age, sex, study center, date and time of blood collection, and fasting status. Serum baseline levels of 25(OH)D were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Multivariable incident rate ratios (IRRs) of HCC associated with continuous (per 10 nmol/L) or categorical levels (tertiles or a priori-defined categories) of prediagnostic 25(OH)D were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a 49% reduction in the risk of HCC (highest versus lowest tertile: multivariable IRR = 0.51, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26 to 0.99; Ptrend  = 0.04; per 10 nmol/L increase: IRR = 0.80, 95% CI, 0.68-0.94). The finding did not vary substantially by time from enrolment to diagnosis, and did not change after adjustment for biomarkers of preexisting liver damage, nor chronic infection with hepatitis B or C viruses. The findings were not modified by body size or smoking status.

Concepts: Logistic regression, Vitamin D, Experimental design, Epidemiology, Cancer, Nutrition, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis C

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The era of interferon-free antiviral treatments for hepatitis C virus infection has arrived. With increasing numbers of approved antivirals, evaluating all parameters that may influence response is necessary to choose optimal combinations for treatment success. Targeting NS5A has become integral in antiviral combinations in clinical development. Daclatasvir and ledipasvir belong to the NS5A inhibitor class, which directly target the NS5A protein. Alisporivir, a host-targeting antiviral, is a cyclophilin inhibitor that indirectly targets NS5A by blocking NS5A/cyclophilin A interaction. Resistance to daclatasvir and ledipasvir differs from alisporivir, with mutations arising in NS5A domains I and II, respectively. Combining these two classes acting on distinct NS5A domains represents an attractive strategy for potentially effective interferon-free treatments for chronic hepatitis C infection.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, Virus, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Antiviral drug, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Target Corporation

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Liver fibrosis and subsequent cirrhosis is a major cause of death worldwide, but few effective antifibrotic therapies are reported. Whey-hydrolyzed peptide (WHP), a major peptide component of bovine milk, exerts anti-inflammatory effects in experimental models. A WHP-enriched diet is widely used for immunomodulating diets (IMD) in clinical fields. However, the effects of WHP on liver fibrosis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifibrotic effects of WHP in a rat cirrhosis model.

Concepts: Scar, Fibrosis, Cirrhosis, Liver, Bilirubin, Hepatitis C, Hepatic portal vein, Liver transplantation

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Fibrosis affecting functionality of vital organs such as liver, lung, heart, and kidney, is involved in many chronic diseases. Positron emission tomography (PET) would not only provide precise localization and extent of the affected tissue but also allow the accurate quantification of the fibrotic process for the subsequent prognosis.

Concepts: Asthma, Lung cancer, Heart, Positron emission tomography, Positron, Cirrhosis, Organ, Organs

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The increasing prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) parallels the rise of obesity and its complications. NAFLD is a common cause of cirrhosis and a leading indication for liver transplant. Genetic susceptibility, dietary composition, and exercise habits influence the development of NAFLD, and insulin resistance results in widespread metabolic perturbations with a net effect of triglyceride accumulation in the liver. Some patients will develop hepatocyte cellular injury and fibrosis of the liver, which can progress to cirrhosis and require liver transplant. Treatments targeting the pathophysiological mechanisms of NAFLD exist, but carry some potential risk and are not universally effective. Weight loss and lifestyle changes remain the most effective and safest approach, but sustainable change is difficult for most patients to achieve. Future work will continue to focus on developing effective and safe interventions to prevent the development of advanced liver disease, whereas efforts in the public health domain continue to combat obesity.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Cirrhosis, Liver, Metabolic syndrome, Hepatology, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Fatty liver

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Posttransplant weight gain is common after orthotopic liver transplantation. We sought to determine the extent of weight gain at 5 years after transplantation in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) cirrhosis versus patients with other types of cirrhosis (non-NAFLD). We studied 126 liver transplants performed between 2005 and 2007 at Saint Luc Hospital, University of Montreal. Seventeen of the 126 patients (13.5%) had NAFLD cirrhosis. Ascites volume was difficult to assess, so we used the body mass index (BMI) at 3 months as the reference BMI. All patients gained weight after transplantation, but BMI increased significantly more and earlier among the NAFLD patients [4.8 versus 1.5 kg/m(2) at 1 year (P = 0.001), 5.0 versus 2.3 kg/m(2) at 2 years (P = 0.01), and 5.6 versus 2.6 kg/m(2) at 5 years (P = 0.009)] in comparison with non-NAFLD patients in unadjusted analyses. The greatest BMI increase over time was investigated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. The BMI increase was divided into tertiles for each period of time observed. The greatest BMI increase over time was defined as the top tertile of BMI increase. After adjustments for potential confounders (ie, total cholesterol, diabetes, and length of hospital stay), NAFLD was no longer associated with a risk of a greater BMI increase [odds ratio (OR) = 3.73 at 1 year (P = 0.11), OR = 2.15 at 2 years (P = 0.34), and OR = 2.87 at 5 years (P = 0.30)]. These findings suggest the need for multidisciplinary, early, and close weight monitoring for all patients. All patients could benefit from pretransplant counseling regarding weight gain and its consequences. Liver Transpl 20:1266-1274, 2014. © 2014 AASLD.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Obesity, Cirrhosis, Liver, Body mass index, Hepatology, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Fatty liver