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Concept: Chloroform

169

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to screen various solvent extracts of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla to display potent antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo, total phenolic and flavonoid contents in order to find possible sources for future novel antioxidants in food and pharmaceutical formulations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A detailed study was performed on the antioxidant activity of the methanol extract of whole plant of Torilis leptophylla (TLM) and its derived fractions {n-hexane (TLH), chloroform (TLC) ethyl acetate (TLE) n-butanol (TLB) and residual aqueous fraction (TLA)} by in vitro chemical analyses and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatic injuries (lipid peroxidation and glutathione contents) in male Sprague-Dawley rat. The total yield, total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) of all the fractions were also determined. TLM was also subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening test for various constituents. RESULTS: The total phenolic contents (TPC) (121.9+/-3.1 mg GAE/g extract) of TLM while total flavonoid contents (TFC) of TLE (60.9 +/-2.2 mg RTE/g extract) were found significantly higher as compared to other solvent fractions. Phytochemical screening of TLM revealed the presence of alkaloids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, phlobatannins, tannins and terpenoids. The EC50 values based on the DPPH (41.0+/-1 mug/ml), ABTS (10.0+/-0.9 mug/ml) and phosphomolybdate (10.7+/-2 mug/ml) for TLB, hydroxyl radicals (8.0+/-1 mug/ml) for TLC, superoxide radicals (57.0+/-0.3 mug/ml) for TLM and hydrogen peroxide radicals (68.0+/-2 mug/ml) for TLE were generally lower showing potential antioxidant properties. A significant but marginal positive correlation was found between TPC and EC50 values for DPPH, hydroxyl, phosphomolybdate and ABTS, whereas another weak and positive correlation was determined between TFC and EC50 values for superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals. Results of in vivo experiment revealed that administration of CCl4 caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (TBARS) while decrease in GSH contents of liver. In contrast, TLM (200 mg/kg bw) and silymarin (50 mg/kg bw) co-treatment effectively prevented these alterations and maintained the antioxidant status. CONCLUSION: Data from present results revealed that Torilis leptophylla act as an antioxidant agent due to its free radical scavenging and cytoprotective activity.

Concepts: Oxygen, Antioxidant, Reactive oxygen species, Flavonoid, Chloroform, Methane, Hydroxyl radical, Lipid peroxidation

169

General anesthetics are used during medical and surgical procedures to reversibly induce a state of total unconsciousness in patients. Here, we investigate, from a dynamic network perspective, how the cortical and cardiovascular systems behave during anesthesia by applying nonparametric spectral techniques to cortical electroencephalography, electrocardiogram and respiratory signals recorded from anesthetized rats under two drugs, ketamine-xylazine (KX) and pentobarbital (PB). We find that the patterns of low-frequency cortico-cardio-respiratory network interactions may undergo significant changes in network activity strengths and in number of network links at different depths of anesthesia dependent upon anesthetics used.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Surgery, Anesthesia, General anaesthesia, Chloroform, Local anesthetic, Anesthetic, EEG measures during anesthesia

28

While surgical arthrodesis is the treatment of choice for osteoarthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint, some clients are unable to pursue surgery due to costs. A more economical technique was sought using intra-articular ethyl alcohol injections to facilitate ankylosis.

Concepts: Alcohol, Surgery, Ethanol, Joint, Antiseptic, Chloroform, Ligament, Methanol

28

The goal of this work was to test feasibility of using galvinoxyl (2,6-di-tert-butyl-α-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-oxo-2,5-cyclohexadien-1-ylidene)-p-tolyloxy) as a polarizing agent for dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR spectroscopy. We have found that galvinoxyl is reasonably soluble in ethyl acetate, chloroform, or acetone and the solutions formed good glasses when mixed together or with other solvents such as dimethyl sulfoxide. W-band electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements revealed that galvinoxyl has an ESR linewidth D intermediate between that of carbon-centered free radical trityl OX063 and the nitroxide-based 4-oxo-TEMPO, thus the DNP with galvinoxyl for nuclei with low gyromagnetic ratio γ such as (13)C and (15)N is expected to proceed predominantly via the thermal mixing process. The optimum radical concentration that would afford the highest (13)C nuclear polarization (approximately 6% for [1-(13)C]ethyl acetate) at 3.35T and 1.4K was found to be around 40mM. After dissolution, large liquid-state NMR enhancements were achieved for a number of (13)C and (15)N compounds with long spin-lattice relaxation time T(1). In addition, the hydrophobic galvinoxyl free radical can be easily filtered out from the dissolution liquid when water is used as the solvent. These results indicate that galvinoxyl can be considered as an easily available free radical polarizing agent for routine dissolution DNP-NMR spectroscopy.

Concepts: Spin, Acetone, Ethanol, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic moment, Solvent, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Chloroform

28

Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020min(-1) for chloroform to 0.523min(-1) for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34kWhm(-3)d(-1) and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4kWhm(-3)d(-1), while 2.6kWhm(-3)d(-1) was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1kWhm(-3)d(-1). It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes.

Concepts: Pool, Chlorine, Chloroform, Chlorination, Swimming pool, Trihalomethane

28

In this work we have proposed a method for the detection of alcohol vapours, i.e. methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, based on the optical sensing response of magnesium 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl porphyrin (MgTPP) thin films, as measured by optical spectrometry with the assistance of chemometric analysis. We have implemented a scheme which allows a laboratory UV-vis spectrometer to act as a so-called “electronic nose” with very little modification. MgTPP thin films were prepared by a spin coating technique, using chloroform as the solvent, and then subjected to thermal annealing at 280°C in an argon atmosphere. These MgTPP optical gas sensors presented significant responses with methanol compared to ethanol and isopropanol, based on the dynamic flow of alcohol vapours at the same mol% of alcohol concentration. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were performed to model the underlying mechanism of this selectivity. The performance of the optical gas sensors was optimised by varying the fabrication parameters. It is hoped that the MgTPP thin film together with an off-the-shelf optical spectrometer and a simple chemometrics algorithm can be a valuable tool for the analysis of alcoholic content in the beverage industry.

Concepts: Alcohol, Carbon dioxide, Ethanol, Solvent, Chloroform, Alcoholic beverage, Methanol, Isopropyl alcohol

27

A solution-processed diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based small molecule, namely BDT-DPP, with broad absorption, suitable energy levels has been synthesized. The widely used solvents of chloroform (CF) and o-dichlorobenzene (ODCB) were used as the spin-coating solvent, respectively, and 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) was used as additive to fabricate efficient photovoltaic devices with BDT-DPP as the donor material and PC71BM as the acceptor material. Devices fabricated from CF exhibit poor fill factor (FF) of 43%, low short-circuit current density (J(sc)) of 6.86 mA/cm(2), and moderate power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.4%, due to rapid evaporation of CF, leading to poor morphology of the active layer. When 0.3% DIO was added, the FF and J(sc) were improved to 60% and 8.49 mA/cm(2), respectively, because of the better film morphology. Active layer spin-coated from the high boiling-point solvent of ODCB shows better phase separation than that from CF, owing to the slow drying nature of ODCB, offering sufficient time for the self-organization of active-layer. Finally, using ODCB as the parent solvent, 0.7% DIO as the co-solvent, optimized devices with continuous interpenetrating network films were obtained, affording a J(sc) of 11.86 mA/cm(2), an open-circuit voltage (V(oc)) of 0.72 V, an FF of 62%, and a PCE of 5.29%. This PCE is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest efficiency reported to date for devices prepared from the solution-processed DPP-based small molecules.

Concepts: Oxygen, Molecule, Atom, Solvent, Solar cell, Photovoltaics, Chloroform, Molecular physics

25

A novel approach is used to synthesize a stable, ligated copper(I) carbene in the gas phase that is capable of typical metal carbenoid chemistry. However, it is shown that copper(I) carbenes generally undergo rapid unimolecular rearrangements including insertions into copper-ligand bonds and Wolff rearrangements. The results indicate that most copper(I) carbenes are inherently unstable and would not be viable intermediates in condensed-phase applications; an alternative intermediate that is less prone to rearrangements is required. Computational data suggest that ylides formed by the complexation of the carbene with solvent or other weak nucleophiles are viable intermediates in the reactions of copper(I) carbenes.

Concepts: Condensed matter physics, Solubility, Chloroform, Plasma, Carbenes

6

We show that the general anesthetics xenon, sulfur hexafluoride, nitrous oxide, and chloroform cause rapid increases of different magnitude and time course in the electron spin content of Drosophila. With the exception of CHCl3, these changes are reversible. Anesthetic-resistant mutant strains of Drosophila exhibit a different pattern of spin responses to anesthetic. In two such mutants, the spin response to CHCl3 is absent. We propose that these spin changes are caused by perturbation of the electronic structure of proteins by general anesthetics. Using density functional theory, we show that general anesthetics perturb and extend the highest occupied molecular orbital of a nine-residue α-helix. The calculated perturbations are qualitatively in accord with the Meyer-Overton relationship and some of its exceptions. We conclude that there may be a connection between spin, electron currents in cells, and the functioning of the nervous system.

Concepts: Electron, Oxygen, Schrödinger equation, Anesthesia, Quantum chemistry, Chloroform, General anaesthetic, General anesthetics

1

Accidental awareness during general anaesthesia can arise from a failure to deliver sufficient anaesthetic agent, or from a patient’s resistance to an expected sufficient dose of such an agent. Awareness is ‘explicit’ if the patient is subsequently able to recall the event. We conducted a systematic review into the effect of nitrous oxide used as part of a general anaesthetic on the risk of accidental awareness in people over the age of five years undergoing general anaesthesia for surgery. We included 15 randomised controlled trials, 14 of which, representing a total of 3439 participants, were included in our primary analysis of the frequency of accidental awareness events. The awareness incidence rate was rare within these studies, and all were considered underpowered with respect to this outcome. The risk of bias across all studies was judged to be high, and 76% of studies failed adequately to conceal participant allocation. We considered the available evidence to be of very poor quality. There were a total of three accidental awareness events reported in two studies, one of which reported that the awareness was the result of a kink in a propofol intravenous line. There were insufficient data to conduct a meta- or sub-group analysis and there was insufficient evidence to draw outcome-related conclusions. We can, however, recommend that future studies focus on potentially high-risk groups such as obstetric or cardiac surgery patients, or those receiving neuromuscular blocking drugs or total intravenous anaesthesia.

Concepts: Patient, Hospital, Systematic review, Randomized controlled trial, Surgery, Anesthesia, General anaesthesia, Chloroform