Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Chest pain


We aimed to derive and validate a clinical decision rule (CDR) for suspected cardiac chest pain in the emergency department (ED). Incorporating information available at the time of first presentation, this CDR would effectively risk-stratify patients and immediately identify: (A) patients for whom hospitalisation may be safely avoided; and (B) high-risk patients, facilitating judicious use of resources.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Heart, Validation, Avicenna, Decision theory, Acute coronary syndrome, Chest pain


It is unclear whether an evaluation incorporating coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) is more effective than standard evaluation in the emergency department in patients with symptoms suggestive of acute coronary syndromes.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Medical imaging, Computed tomography angiography, Angiography, Magnetic resonance angiography, Chest pain, Dublin


There is a paucity of data on the association between high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) levels and outcomes in patients with chest pain but no myocardial infarction (MI), or any other condition that may lead to acutely elevated troponin levels.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Heart, Cardiac muscle, Cardiac arrest, The Association, Troponin, Chest pain


Some studies report that women are less likely to present with chest pain for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Information on symptom presentation, perception of symptoms, and care-seeking behaviors is limited for young patients with AMI.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Medical terms, Sexual dimorphism, Gender, Chest pain


BACKGROUND:A hip fracture causes bleeding, pain and immobility, and initiates inflammatory, hypercoagulable, catabolic and stress states. Accelerated surgery may improve outcomes by reducing the duration of these states and immobility. We undertook a pilot trial to determine the feasibility of a trial comparing accelerated care (i.e., rapid medical clearance and surgery) and standard care among patients with a hip fracture. METHODS:Patients aged 45 years or older who, during weekday, daytime working hours, received a diagnosis of a hip fracture requiring surgery were randomly assigned to receive accelerated or standard care. Our feasibility outcomes included the proportion of eligible patients randomly assigned, completeness of follow-up and timelines of accelerated surgery. The main clinical outcome, assessed by data collectors and adjudicators who were unaware of study group allocations, was a major perioperative complication (i.e., a composite of death, preoperative myocardial infarction, myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, stroke, and life-threatening or major bleeding) within 30 days of randomization. RESULTS:Of patients eligible for inclusion, 80% consented and were randomly assigned to groups (30 to accelerated care and 30 to standard care) at 2 centres in Canada and 1 centre in India. All patients completed 30-day follow-up. The median time from diagnosis to surgery was 6.0 hours in the accelerated care group and 24.2 hours in the standard care group (p < 0.001). A major perioperative complication occurred in 9 (30%) of the patients in the accelerated care group and 14 (47%) of the patients in the standard care group (hazard ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.26-1.39). INTERPRETATION:These results show the feasibility of a trial comparing accelerated and standard care among patients with hip fracture and support a definitive trial. Trial registration:, no. NCT01344343.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Myocardial infarction, Stroke, Median, Pulmonary embolism, Normal distribution, Anticoagulant, Chest pain


ST-segment elevation (STE) due to inferior STE myocardial infarction (STEMI) may be misdiagnosed as pericarditis. Conversely, this less life-threatening etiology of ST elevation may be confused for inferior STEMI. We sought to determine if the presence of any ST-segment depression in lead aVL would differentiate inferior STEMI from pericarditis.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Infarction, Troponin, Acute coronary syndrome, Pericarditis, Chest pain


Hospital evaluation of patients with chest pain is common and costly. The HEART score risk stratification tool that merges troponin testing into a clinical risk model for evaluation emergency department patients with possible acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been shown to effectively identify a substantial low-risk subset of patients possibly safe for early discharge without stress testing, a strategy that could have tremendous healthcare savings implications.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hospital, Heart, Troponin, Emergency department, Chest pain, Cardiac stress test


Our aim was to compare the accuracy of lung ultrasound (LUS) and standard chest x-ray (CXR) for diagnosing pneumonia in older patients with acute respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, cough, hemoptysis, and atypical chest pain) admitted to an acute-care geriatric ward.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Lung cancer, Pneumonia, Pulmonary embolism, Tuberculosis, Pneumothorax, Chest pain, Hemoptysis


BACKGROUND:Access to care may be implicated in disparities between men and women in death after acute coronary syndrome, especially among younger adults. We aimed to assess sex-related differences in access to care among patients with premature acute coronary syndrome and to identify clinical and gender-related determinants of access to care. METHODS:We studied 1123 patients (18-55 yr) admitted to hospital for acute coronary syndrome and enrolled in the GENESIS-PRAXY cohort study. Outcome measures were door-to-electrocardiography, door-to-needle and door-to-balloon times, as well as proportions of patients undergoing cardiac catheterization, reperfusion or nonprimary percutaneous coronary intervention. We performed univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses to identify clinical and gender-related determinants of timely procedures and use of invasive procedures. RESULTS:Women were less likely than men to receive care within benchmark times for electrocardiography (≤ 10 min: 29% v. 38%, p = 0.02) or fibrinolysis (≤ 30 min: 32% v. 57%, p = 0.01). Women with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI) were less likely than men to undergo reperfusion therapy (primary percutaneous coronary intervention or fibrinolysis) (83% v. 91%, p = 0.01), and women with non-STsegment elevation MI or unstable angina were less likely to undergo nonprimary percutaneous coronary intervention (48% v. 66%, p < 0.001). Clinical determinants of poorer access to care included anxiety, increased number of risk factors and absence of chest pain. Gender-related determinants included feminine traits of personality and responsibility for housework. INTERPRETATION:Among younger adults with acute coronary syndrome, women and men had different access to care. Moreover, fewer than half of men and women with ST-segment elevation MI received timely primary coronary intervention. Our results also highlight that men and women with no chest pain and those with anxiety, several traditional risk factors and feminine personality traits were at particularly increased risk of poorer access to care.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Cardiology, Percutaneous coronary intervention, Acute coronary syndrome, Chest pain


The HEART Pathway is a decision aid designed to identify emergency department patients with acute chest pain for early discharge. No randomized trials have compared the HEART Pathway with usual care.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Heart, Risk, Randomized controlled trial, The Trial, Identification, Chest pain