Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Catheter


Central venous catheter (CVC) thrombi result in significant morbidity in children, and currently available treatments are associated with significant risk. We sought to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of microbubble (MB) enhanced sonothrombolysis for aged CVC associated thrombi in vivo.

Concepts: Thrombosis, Central venous catheter, Catheter, Catheters, Peripheral venous catheter


Several recent studies have reported the benefits of tubeless percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL). Postoperatively, tubeless PNL patients have an indwelling ureteral stent placed, which is often associated with stent-related morbidity. We have performed totally tubeless (tubeless and stentless) PNL in which no nephrostomy tube or ureteral stent is placed postoperatively. We evaluated the safety, effectiveness, and feasibility of totally tubeless PNL.

Concepts: Cultural studies, Catheter


In current clinical practice, peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) are typically inserted using external anatomical measurements and a confirmatory chest X-ray, or using fluoroscopy. The Sherlock 3CG(®) Tip Confirmation System (TCS) allows magnetic tracking of the PICC tip during insertion and confirmation of the final location using ECG, meaning that most patients will not require a chest X-ray or fluoroscopy. The Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was evaluated in 2014 by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) as part of the Medical Technologies Evaluation Programme. The company (C.R. Bard Ltd) identified four abstracts, one paper pending publication and questionnaire data from NHS users of the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS. None of the evidence included a comparator arm. Placement accuracy of PICCs using the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS where a chest X-ray was also used ranged from 79.5 to 100 %. The company reported that 9 out of 16 NHS centres that used the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS were no longer using chest X-rays to routinely confirm PICC tip location. The evidence did not report the need for catheter repositioning, re-insertion, staff time savings, treatment delays, length of stay, quality of life outcomes or complications. The company’s model found that the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was cost saving by GBP25.67 per patient compared to blind bedside PICC insertion. The External Assessment Centre (EAC) adapted the company’s model to test alternative assumptions for nurse time, theatre cost, malposition rate and reinsertion method, and found that the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was cost incurring by GBP9.37 per patient compared to blind bedside PICC insertion. The use of the Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS in the UK NHS compared to blind PICC insertion using a confirmatory chest X-ray appears to hover around being cost neutral. Staff time and accuracy were key drivers in the model: evidence for these is sparse and the reality will vary in different situations. If evidence became available for outcomes after the initial insertion, such as replacement, complications and adverse events, the cost implications may change. The direction of this potential change is not known. NICE published guidance MTG24 in March 2015 recommending that the case for adoption of Sherlock 3CG(®) TCS was supported by the evidence.

Concepts: X-ray, Medical imaging, Radiography, Angiography, Radiology, Fluoroscopy, Catheter, Peripherally inserted central catheter


The use of ultrasound (US) has been proposed to reduce the number of complications and to increase the safety and quality of central venous catheter (CVC) placement. In this review, we describe the rationale for the use of US during CVC placement, the basic principles of this technique, and the current evidence and existing guidelines for its use. In addition, we recommend a structured approach for US-guided central venous access for clinical practice. Static and real-time US can be used to visualize the anatomy and patency of the target vein in a short-axis and a long-axis view. US-guided needle advancement can be performed in an “out-of-plane” and an “in-plane” technique. There is clear evidence that US offers gains in safety and quality during CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. For the subclavian and femoral veins, US offers small gains in safety and quality. Based on the available evidence from clinical studies, several guidelines from medical societies strongly recommend the use of US for CVC placement in the internal jugular vein. Data from survey studies show that there is still a gap between the existing evidence and guidelines and the use of US in clinical practice. For clinical practice, we recommend a six-step systematic approach for US-guided central venous access that includes assessing the target vein (anatomy and vessel localization, vessel patency), using real-time US guidance for puncture of the vein, and confirming the correct needle, wire, and catheter position in the vein. To achieve the best skill level for CVC placement the knowledge from anatomic landmark techniques and the knowledge from US-guided CVC placement need to be combined and integrated.

Concepts: Internal jugular vein, Jugular vein, Central venous catheter, Subclavian vein, Catheter, Common facial vein, Catheters, Peripheral venous catheter


Biofilms are ubiquitous and when mature have a complex structure of microcolonies in an extracellular polysaccharide and extracellular DNA matrix. Indwelling medical devices harbour biofilms which have been shown to cause infections and act as reservoirs for pathogens. Urinary catheters are often in place for considerable periods of time and are susceptible to both encrustation and biofilm formation. Strategies for minimising biofilm occurrence underpin an active research area in biomedicine. Manuka honey has, inter alia, well-established antibacterial properties. This study aims to assess the influence of honey on early biofilm formation in an established in vitro model.

Concepts: Bacteria, Microbiology, Biofilm, Epidural, Catheter, Catheters, Foley catheter, Urinary catheterization


The millions of peripheral intravenous catheters used each year are recommended for 72-96 h replacement in adults. This routine replacement increases health-care costs and staff workload and requires patients to undergo repeated invasive procedures. The effectiveness of the practice is not well established. Our hypothesis was that clinically indicated catheter replacement is of equal benefit to routine replacement.

Concepts: Intravenous therapy, Catheter, Peripheral venous catheter, The Practice


The growing utilisation of indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) has put forward a new era in the management of recurrent symptomatic pleural effusions. IPC use is safe compared to talc pleurodesis, though complications can occur. Pleural infection affects <5% of patients, and is usually responsive to antibiotic treatment without requiring catheter removal or surgery. Pleural loculations develop over time, limiting drainage in 10% of patients, which can be improved with intrapleural fibrinolytic therapy. Catheter tract metastasis can occur with most tumours but is more common in mesothelioma. The metastases usually respond to analgaesics and/or external radiotherapy. Long-term intermittent drainage of exudative effusions or chylothorax can potentially lead to loss of nutrients, though no data exist on any clinical impact. Fibrin clots within the catheter lumen can result in blockage. Chest pain following IPC insertion is often mild, and adjustments in analgaesics and drainage practice are usually all that are required. As clinical experience with the use of IPC accumulates, the profile and natural course of complications are increasingly described. We aim to summarise the available literature on IPC-related complications and the evidence to support specific strategies.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Fibrin, Pleural effusion, Pneumothorax, Pleurodesis, Catheter, Foley catheter


Urinary catheters are often placed in the emergency department (ED) and are associated with an increased safety risk for hospitalized patients. We evaluate the effect of an intervention to reduce unnecessary placement of urinary catheters in the ED.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Intracranial pressure, Catheter, Catheters, Foley catheter, Urinary catheterization, Acute assessment unit


Hospitalized adult patients are at increased risk for adverse outcomes, particularly when undergoing invasive procedures that include indwelling urinary catheterization. This study identified factors associated with nurses' adoption of an evidence-based practice to reduce the duration of catheterization and potential for catheter-associated urinary tract infections in hospitalized adults.

Concepts: Kidney, Urinary tract infection, Urine, Parenting, Catheter, Catheters, Foley catheter, Urinary catheterization


The long-term maintenance of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt function depends on the correct placement of the catheter tip in the lateral ventricle. The relationship between the location of the ventricular catheter tip and VP shunt function was analyzed in 52 patients. The location of the ventricular catheter tip was classified into one of the following five groups: (i) Group A - superior to the foramen of Monro; (ii) Group B - in the center of the lateral ventricle body; (iii) Group C - in the third ventricle; (iv) Group D - contacting the ventricle wall; and (v) Group E - in the septum pellucidum. VP shunt function was defined as well controlled hydrocephalus when the Evan’s ratio of the ventricular size was < 0.3. The VP shunt functioned well in 14 of 52 patients (26.9%), the shunt valve pressure was incorrectly set in 21 (40.4%), and irreversible shunt malfunction was identified in 17 (32.7%). Among the 14 patients with a well-functioning shunt, 13 were in Groups A or B with an odds ratio (OR) of 17.875 (p<0.05). In the 17 irreversible shunt malfunctions, 13 were identified in Groups C, D, or E with an OR of 0.123 (p<0.05). Long term VP shunt function or failure due to irreversible malfunction is directly influenced by the position of the ventricular catheter tip. Ideal points for positioning the ventricular catheter tip are superior to the foramen of Monro and in the center of the lateral ventricle body. Early shunt revision may be required for patients in whom the catheter tip contacts the ventricle wall or is located in the septum pellucidum.

Concepts: Cerebrospinal fluid, Term, Hydrocephalus, Catheter, Ventricular system, Group B, Fourth ventricle, Cerebral shunt