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Concept: Caesarean delivery on maternal request


BACKGROUND: Studies on the association of birth by caesarean section (C/S) and allergies have produced conflicting findings. Furthermore, evidence on whether this association may differ in those at risk of atopy is limited. This study aims to investigate the association of mode of delivery with asthma and atopic sensitization and the extent to which any effect is modified by family history of allergies. METHODS: Asthma outcomes were assessed cross-sectionally in 2216 children at age 8 on the basis of parents' responses to the ISAAC questionnaire whilst skin prick tests to eleven aeroallergens were also performed in a subgroup of 746 children. Adjusted odds ratios of asthma and atopy by mode of delivery were estimated in multivariable logistic models while evidence of effect modification was examined by introducing interaction terms in the models. RESULTS: After adjusting for potential confounders, children born by C/S appeared significantly more likely than those born vaginally to report ever wheezing (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.07-1.71), asthma diagnosis (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.09-1.83) and be atopic (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.08-2.60). There was modest evidence that family history of allergies may modify the effect of C/S delivery on atopy (p for effect modification=0.06) but this was not the case for the asthma outcomes. Specifically, while more than a two-fold increase in the odds of being a topic was observed in children with a family history of allergies if born by C/S (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.38-5.00), no association was observed in children without a family history of allergies (OR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64-2.11). CONCLUSIONS: Birth by C/S is associated with asthma and atopic sensitization in childhood. The association of C/S and atopy appears more pronounced in children with family history of allergies.

Concepts: Allergen, Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Odds ratio, Hypersensitivity, Allergy, Atopy, Childbirth, Asthma


BACKGROUND: Few studies have systematically addressed the role of epidural analgesia and caesarean delivery in predicting the post-partum disease activity in women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS)The objective of this study was to assess the impact of epidural analgesia (EA) and caesarean delivery (CD) on the risk of post-partum relapses and disability in women with MS. METHODS: In the context of an Italian prospective study on the safety of immunomodulators in pregnancy, we included pregnancies occurred between 2002 and 2008 in women with MS regularly followed-up in 21 Italian MS centers. Data were gathered through a standardized, semi-structured interview, dealing with pregnancy outcomes, breastfeeding, type of delivery (vaginal or caesarean) and EA. The risk of post-partum relapses and disability progression (1 point on the Expanded Disability Status Sclae, EDSS, point, confirmed after six months) was assessed through a logistic multivariate regression analysis. RESULTS: We collected data on 423 pregnancies in 415 women. Among these, 349 pregnancies resulted in full term deliveries, with a post-partum follow-up of at least one year (mean follow-up period 5.5+/-3.1 years). One hundred and fifty-five patients (44.4%) underwent CD and 65 (18.5%) EA. In the multivariate analysis neither CD, nor EA were associated with a higher risk of post-partum relapses. Post-partum relapses were related to a higher EDSS score at conception (OR=1.42; 95%CI 1.11-1.82; p=0.005), a higher number of relapses in the year before pregnancy (OR=1.62; 95%CI 1.15-2.29; p=0.006) and during pregnancy (OR=3.07; 95% CI 1.40-6.72; p=0.005). Likewise, CD and EA were not associated with disability progression on the EDSS after delivery. The only significant predictor of disability progression was the occurrence of relapses in the year after delivery (disability progression in the year after delivery: OR= 4.00; 95%CI 2.0-8.2; p<0.001; disability progression over the whole follow-up period: OR= 2.0; 95%CI 1.2-3.3; p=0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings, show no correlation between EA, CD and postpartum relapses and disability. Therefore these procedures can safely be applied in MS patients. On the other hand, post-partum relapses are significantly associated with increased disability, which calls for the need of preventive therapies after delivery.

Concepts: Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Regression analysis, Placenta accreta, Multiple sclerosis, Obstetrics, Epidural, Caesarean section, Childbirth


despite an exponential rise in the number of medically initiated elective caesarean sections over the last two decades, women’s experiences of this birth mode remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to address this gap by describing women’s experiences of medically necessary elective caesarean section.

Concepts: Surgical procedures, Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Caesarean section, Obstetrics, Childbirth



Postoperative outcomes of animals that have undergone cesarean delivery have been reported previously; however, in most studies results were influenced by a combination of surgery per se and the preoperative condition of the animal, which was frequently impaired because of the presence of dystocia. To evaluate the effects of the cesarean section itself we conducted a matched cohort study comparing postpartum complications and future reproductive performance of 162 ewes subjected to elective cesarean section and 162 ewes that had an unassisted vaginal delivery. Survival and subsequent growth of their lambs were also compared. Effect of mode of delivery on weight gain was estimated using linear mixed models. Case ewes, which underwent surgery during the period from 1996 through 2004, and control ewes were from the flock at the Animal Production Experimental Centre, Norway. Two ewes (1.2%) that underwent cesarean section died; one developed peritonitis and the other experienced uterine prolapse and did not recover. Postoperatively, four ewes suffered from metritis, three suffered a wound infection, and four a delayed wound healing; all recovered after treatment. One of the ewes that delivered vaginally died 3 days after lambing. The incidences of fetal and postnatal deaths did not differ significantly between the cesarean and the vaginal delivery groups (fetal deaths, 3.5% and 3.1%, and postnatal deaths, 9.9% and 7.1%, respectively). Survival rates and weight gains of the lambs the subsequent months were similar for the two groups. Seventy percent of the ewes that had a cesarean section and 72% of those that had a vaginal delivery were bred the next season; conception rates were 89% and 90%, respectively. However, the ewes subjected to surgery the previous year gave birth to significantly fewer live-born lambs (mean, 1.64) than those that had had a vaginal delivery (1.93). The difference was the result of a reduced litter size and an increased number of fetal deaths in the former group. Birth weights of the live-born lambs the second year did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, severe short-term complications were rare among the ewes that underwent elective cesarean section. Survival and growth of their lambs and their conception rate the subsequent season did not differ from the corresponding outcomes of the ewes that delivered vaginally, but their fertility was reduced in the sense that they gave birth to fewer live-born lambs the following lambing season.

Concepts: Uterus, Dystocia, Surgical procedures, Wound healing, Obstetrics, Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Caesarean section, Childbirth


OBJECTIVE: To describe the knowledge of paediatricians regarding the practice of antimicrobial prophylaxis for caesarean section in reference to the Consensus Conference of the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR) and assess the feasibility of a change in attitude (injection of the antibiotic prior to incision) among paediatricians Perinatal Health Network of Auvergne (RSPA) working in maternity. STUDY DESIGN: Cross sectional study by survey. METHODS: First questionnaire was sent to 46 RSPA paediatricians working in maternity. Almost one-third of paediatricians who returned the questionnaire said they were not concerned. A second questionnaire was developed with two paediatricians of the CHU and sent to the same 46 paediatricians. The statistical part involved percentages. RESULTS: Response rates were respectively 61% and 67%. For the first questionnaire, only 25% of the paediatricians knew the antibiotic and the time for injection. For the second questionnaire, 87% were in favour of an administration before incision and 42% thought it will not affect the care of the newborn. For 35% of respondents, it could lead to a change in the duration of antibiotic therapy in cases of perinatal infection and for 13% only a delay in the implementation of antibiotic therapy in children. CONCLUSION: The RSPA paediatricians did not know the practices of antibiotic prophylaxis for caesarean section. However, they did not appear opposed to an administration before cord clamping as it would not delay the implementation of any antibiotics in the newborn.

Concepts: Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Antibiotic, Anesthesia, Caesarean section, Obstetrics, Childbirth


PURPOSE: The production of reactive oxygen substances plays an important regulatory role in many physiologic reproductive processes. Excessive production may lead to oxidative stress (OS), and bring about pregnancy disorders. Growing evidence indicates that OS plays a major role in the pathophysiology of complications such as early pregnancy loss, placental insufficiency, preeclampsia, fetal growth restriction, and neonatal complications. Whether parturition induces oxidative stress is in dispute. In this review, we elaborate the influence of mode of delivery (vaginal delivery or cesarean delivery) on oxidative stress of neonates. METHODS: A review of old and recent literature was done. The studies were divided according to the impact of mode of delivery on oxidative stress in the newborn. RESULTS: There is a divergence in the oxidative stress production according to the mode of delivery. CONCLUSIONS: In view of neonatal oxidative stress measures, no major difference was found between uncomplicated vaginal delivery and elective cesarean section.

Concepts: Abortion, Fetus, Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Infant, Caesarean section, Obstetrics, Pregnancy, Childbirth


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of placenta praevia accreta following primary (first) elective or primary emergency caesarean section in a pregnancy complicated by placenta praevia. DESIGN: Retrospective matched case-control study, employing variable matching. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre between 1993 and 2008. POPULATION: Sixty-five cases and 102 controls were used for the analysis from a total of 82 667 births during the study period. METHODS: Relevant data were abstracted from clinical records. Matching of cases with controls was based on co-existing placenta praevia, number of previous caesarean sections, and age, with one or two controls per case. Results are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placenta accreta in a pregnancy complicated by placenta praevia following a primary elective or emergency caesarean section, and morbidity associated with pregnancies complicated by placenta accreta. RESULTS: Significantly more cases than controls had an elective caesarean section for their primary caesarean delivery (46.2 versus 18.6%; P < 0.001). There were no differences between groups for previous pregnancy loss, uterine surgery, and vaginal delivery, before or after the primary caesarean section. Compared with primary emergency caesarean section, primary elective caesarean section significantly increased the risk of placenta accreta in a subsequent pregnancy in the presence of placenta praevia (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.47-6.12; P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that women with a primary elective caesarean section without labour are more likely, compared with those undergoing primary emergency caesarean section with labour, to develop an accreta in a subsequent pregnancy with placenta praevia.

Concepts: Placental abruption, Epidural, Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Placenta praevia, Placenta accreta, Caesarean section, Obstetrics, Childbirth



Given the growing prevalence of birth by Caesarean section (CS) worldwide, it is important to understand any long-term effects CS delivery may have on a child’s development. We assessed the impact of mode of delivery on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Concepts: Caesarean delivery on maternal request, Educational psychology, PDD-NOS, Pervasive developmental disorder, Asperger syndrome, Childbirth, Autism, Autism spectrum