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Concept: Breast reduction


Although many plastic surgeons perform autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) for breast reconstruction after oncologic surgery, it has not been established whether postoncologic lipofilling increases the risk of breast cancer recurrence. The authors assessed the risk of locoregional and systemic recurrence in patients who underwent lipofilling for breast reconstruction.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Pleural effusion, Plastic surgery, Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast implant, Breast reduction


The aim of this study was to evaluate the histologic diagnoses of the reduction mammaplasty specimens in two retrospective series of patients operated using superior and central pedicle mammaplasties. Between November 2000 and December 2011, 60 consecutive patients (120 breasts) underwent breast reduction using the superior pedicle technique with a vertical scar (Lejour’s technique). These patients were compared with another series of 80 patients (150 breasts) who underwent breast reduction using a vertical scar mammaplasty with a central pedicle (Copcu’s technique). The characteristics of the patients were statistically similar between the two groups. Therefore, 140 patients who had undergone reduction mammaplasty were analyzed with respect to their histologic diagnoses, age, and specimen’s weight. In the superior pedicle technique, we found that 30% of these women had pathologic alterations in at least one of their breasts, whereas the pathologic changes in patients who underwent Copcu’s technique were 35%. In terms of tumor diagnosis, the upper quadrant excision technique (e.g. Copcu’s method) may be safer. If there is no other special condition, it is better to use the pedicle technique in which the upper lateral and upper medial pole is removed. Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study.

Concepts: Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction


Reduction mammaplasty for macromastia provides relief from uncomfortable symptoms and improves self-confidence and the ability to participate in sports activities. Reduction mammaplasty using the free nipple graft technique may result in bottoming-out deformity and a lack of upper-pole projection. We describe a modified breast reduction technique that combines the Graf and Thorek methods.

Concepts: Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction


BACKGROUND: Prosthetic reconstruction using human acellular dermis (ADM) is a common practice in breast reconstruction. AlloDerm and FlexHD are two different forms of ADM, each with unique characteristics. No studies have directly compared the postoperative complications of these 2 products. METHODS: The outcomes of 547 consecutive implant-based breast reconstructions were reviewed. RESULTS: Reconstruction was performed in 382 consecutive women (547 total breasts), employing mostly immediate reconstruction (81%). Mean follow-up was 6.4 months. Among immediate reconstructions, 165 used AlloDerm and 97 used FlexHD. Complications were similar by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, smoking and higher initial implant fill were risk factors for delayed healing. The use of FlexHD, single-stage reconstruction, and smoking were independent risk factors for implant loss. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference in the complication rates between AlloDerm and FlexHD in immediate breast reconstruction. Multivariate analysis suggests that FlexHD may be a risk factor for implant loss.

Concepts: Risk, Multivariate statistics, Difference, Breast, Univariate, Breast reconstruction, Breast implant, Breast reduction


: Our understanding of breast shape and size changes after surgery is limited by a lack of measurement studies that evaluate and compare changes in breast dimensions after cosmetic breast procedures. This study was undertaken to remedy this deficiency.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast, Cultural studies, Breast reconstruction, Breast implant, Breast reduction, Mastopexy


BACKGROUND: Short-scar breast reduction techniques have become very popular in the last two decades. These techniques cannot be used very often in patients with exceptionally large breasts because of the excessive amounts of redundant skin. In this article we describe our new approach for dealing with the extra skin remaining in patients with very large breasts so that they may also benefit from the short-scar breast reduction procedure. METHODS: In our technique the vertical suture line is divided into two separate suture lines. The first suture line follows the natural curve of the lower pole of the breast from the nipple to the chest wall. This line is elongated by elevating and anchoring the new inframammary fold higher on the chest wall with a suspensory suture and the skin is then closed in a straight line. The second suture line attaches the extra lower skin by closing the dermis to the chest wall and then closing the skin with a purse-string suture. This technique helps to deal with the extra skin resulting from the short-scar breast reduction technique. RESULTS: The technique was used in ten patients with large breasts. Patient satisfaction was excellent and there was no increase in complications. The technique also helped to obliterate the dead space beneath the breast and reduced seroma formation. CONCLUSION: We found that this new technique can be used safely and effectively in selected patients with large breasts without any increase in complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Skin, Breast, Curve, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction, Inframammary fold, Nipple


In spite of more recent techniques for breast reduction, the inferior pedicle technique has proven to be enduring and still a very popular option in the plastic surgeon’s armamentarium despite certain shortcomings. This technique is especially important for treating large breasts with a long sternal notch-to-nipple distance. The modifications we describe in this article overcome some of the main drawbacks of the standard inferior pedicle technique and make the procedure particularly effective when used on appropriately selected patients. This is achieved principally by the creation of a strong, durable, and internalized “dermal cage” that remains fixed to the chest wall in the upper part, as well as on both sides, to support the majority of the remaining breast tissue. This serves several purposes, including narrowing the breast thereby giving good projection and reduction of the N-IMF length of the inferior pedicle. Through suspension and fixation of the inferior pedicle to the chest wall, one can mitigate the effects of gravity on the inferior pedicle. The benefits of this include reduced tension on the T junction, thereby reducing the incidence of wound dehiscence in the immediate postoperative period, while reduction of tension on the nipple-areola complex reduces “bottoming” out over the long term. This process has been the main shortcoming of the inferior pedicle technique to date. The technique was used on 26 patients over a 7-year period with a mean long-term follow-up of 41 months. The results demonstrate the short- and long-term effectiveness of our own particular combination of modifications to previously described techniques and modifications of the inferior pedicle breast reduction. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Concepts: Breast cancer, Evidence-based medicine, Redox, Plastic surgery, Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction, Mastopexy


BACKGROUND: Gestational gigantomastia (GGM) is a rare complication of pregnancy. Management usually is initiated with bromocriptine. If this is unsuccessful, surgery may be required. The surgical management may be by breast reduction or by mastectomy and delayed reconstruction. CASE: A 24-year-old woman (G1P0) presented at 24 weeks gestation with massive hypertrophy of her breasts. A decision to operate was made by a multidisciplinary team. At 30 weeks gestation, bilateral mastectomies were performed, with removal of more than 8 kg per side. Reconstruction was started 10 months after delivery using tissue expanders followed by definitive implants. CONCLUSION: GGM can be successfully reconstructed. Knowledge of the treatment process and the expected outcomes can help clinicians inform their patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

Concepts: Childbirth, Breast cancer, Evidence-based medicine, Plastic surgery, Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction, Mastectomy


Although breast reduction surgery plays an invaluable role in the correction of macromastia, it almost always results in a breast lacking in upper pole fullness and/or roundness. We present a technique of breast reduction combined with augmentation termed “reductive augmentation” to solve this problem. The technique is also extremely useful for correcting breast asymmetry, as well as revising significant pseudoptosis in the patient who has previously undergone breast augmentation with or without mastopexy.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction, Mastopexy, Gynecomastia


Choosing the ideal face lift technique for a patient presents an added challenge for the plastic surgeon. With the multitude of well-established variations of this procedure, it would be beneficial to define which facialplasty techniques produces the most optimal result. By comparing the postoperative results from two of the most popularized face lift incision techniques in monozygotic twins it is hypothesized that the ‘best’ technique may be determined.

Concepts: Hospital, Plastic surgery, Twin, Liposuction, Rhytidectomy, Breast reduction