SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Breast reconstruction

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Although many plastic surgeons perform autologous fat grafting (lipofilling) for breast reconstruction after oncologic surgery, it has not been established whether postoncologic lipofilling increases the risk of breast cancer recurrence. The authors assessed the risk of locoregional and systemic recurrence in patients who underwent lipofilling for breast reconstruction.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Pleural effusion, Plastic surgery, Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast implant, Breast reduction

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the histologic diagnoses of the reduction mammaplasty specimens in two retrospective series of patients operated using superior and central pedicle mammaplasties. Between November 2000 and December 2011, 60 consecutive patients (120 breasts) underwent breast reduction using the superior pedicle technique with a vertical scar (Lejour’s technique). These patients were compared with another series of 80 patients (150 breasts) who underwent breast reduction using a vertical scar mammaplasty with a central pedicle (Copcu’s technique). The characteristics of the patients were statistically similar between the two groups. Therefore, 140 patients who had undergone reduction mammaplasty were analyzed with respect to their histologic diagnoses, age, and specimen’s weight. In the superior pedicle technique, we found that 30% of these women had pathologic alterations in at least one of their breasts, whereas the pathologic changes in patients who underwent Copcu’s technique were 35%. In terms of tumor diagnosis, the upper quadrant excision technique (e.g. Copcu’s method) may be safer. If there is no other special condition, it is better to use the pedicle technique in which the upper lateral and upper medial pole is removed. Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study.

Concepts: Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction

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Reduction mammaplasty for macromastia provides relief from uncomfortable symptoms and improves self-confidence and the ability to participate in sports activities. Reduction mammaplasty using the free nipple graft technique may result in bottoming-out deformity and a lack of upper-pole projection. We describe a modified breast reduction technique that combines the Graf and Thorek methods.

Concepts: Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction

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To determine the efficacy of Botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) injections for pain relief following placement of subpectoral tissue expanders and breast implants.

Concepts: Pain, Plastic surgery, Pain management, Breast reconstruction, Botulinum toxin, Microbial toxins, Clostridium botulinum, Breast implant

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Abstract Immediate breast reconstruction with tissue expander has become an increasingly popular procedure. Complete coverage of the expander by a musculofascial layer provides an additional well-vascularised layer, reducing the rate of possible complications of skin necrosis, prosthesis displacement, and the late capsular contracture. Complete expander coverage can be achieved by a combination of pectoralis major muscle and adjacent thoracic fascia in selected patients. Seventy-five breast mounds in 59 patients were reconstructed, in the first stage a temporary tissue expander inserted immediately after mastectomy and a musculofascial layer composed of the pectoralis major muscle, the serratus anterior fascia, and the superficial pectoral fascia were created to cover the expander. The first stage was followed months later by implant insertion. Minor and major complications were reported in a period of follow-up ranging from 24-42 months (mean 31 months). Complete musculofascial coverage of the tissue expander was a simple and easy to learn technique providing that the patient has a well-formed and intact superficial pectoral and serratus anterior fascia. From a total of 75 breast mounds reconstructed, major complications rate was 4% (overall rate of 19.8%), including major seroma (n = 4), haematoma (n = 1), partial skin loss (n = 3), wound dehiscence (n = 1), major infection (n = 2), severe capsule contracture (n = 1), and expander displacement (n = 3). The serratus anterior fascia and the superficial pectoral fascia flaps can be effectively used as an autologous tissue layer to cover the lower and the lateral aspect of tissue expanders in immediate breast reconstruction after mastectomy.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast, Breast reconstruction, Muscles of the upper limb, Pectoralis major muscle, Medial pectoral nerve, Tissue expansion

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Tissue expander-based breast reconstruction is the most commonly utilized technique in the U.S. This modality, however, may be associated with significant pain related to pectoralis myospasms. Spasms of the pectoralis major likely result from trauma to the pectoral nerves during muscle elevation. In a subset of patients, Botox(®) therapy may be inadequate for long-term relief. We describe a patient with intractable pectoralis myospasms after breast reconstruction. Upon failing Botox(®) therapy, medial and lateral pectoral neurectomies were performed. Nine months after the procedure, the patient noted dramatic improvement in both symptoms and cosmesis with no musculoskeletal sequelae. We recommend medial and lateral pectoral neurectomy as an alternative in patients with intractable pectoral myospasms after tissue expander reconstruction.

Concepts: Patient, Breast, Breast reconstruction, Pectoralis major muscle, Medial pectoral nerve

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BACKGROUND: Prosthetic reconstruction using human acellular dermis (ADM) is a common practice in breast reconstruction. AlloDerm and FlexHD are two different forms of ADM, each with unique characteristics. No studies have directly compared the postoperative complications of these 2 products. METHODS: The outcomes of 547 consecutive implant-based breast reconstructions were reviewed. RESULTS: Reconstruction was performed in 382 consecutive women (547 total breasts), employing mostly immediate reconstruction (81%). Mean follow-up was 6.4 months. Among immediate reconstructions, 165 used AlloDerm and 97 used FlexHD. Complications were similar by univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, smoking and higher initial implant fill were risk factors for delayed healing. The use of FlexHD, single-stage reconstruction, and smoking were independent risk factors for implant loss. CONCLUSIONS: There is no significant difference in the complication rates between AlloDerm and FlexHD in immediate breast reconstruction. Multivariate analysis suggests that FlexHD may be a risk factor for implant loss.

Concepts: Risk, Multivariate statistics, Difference, Breast, Univariate, Breast reconstruction, Breast implant, Breast reduction

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: A 2010 nationwide survey of plastic and reconstructive surgeons indicated that approximately 83 percent performed predominantly implant-based breast reconstruction, with acellular dermal matrix used by approximately half of those practitioners. Although the medical literature documents well over 2000 cases of breast reconstruction with matrices, relatively few cases using other than human cadaveric acellular dermal matrices have been reported. The author compared complications and costs using SurgiMend fetal bovine and AlloDerm human cadaveric acellular dermal matrices.

Concepts: Breast, Breast reconstruction, Breast implant

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: Our understanding of breast shape and size changes after surgery is limited by a lack of measurement studies that evaluate and compare changes in breast dimensions after cosmetic breast procedures. This study was undertaken to remedy this deficiency.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast, Cultural studies, Breast reconstruction, Breast implant, Breast reduction, Mastopexy

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BACKGROUND: Short-scar breast reduction techniques have become very popular in the last two decades. These techniques cannot be used very often in patients with exceptionally large breasts because of the excessive amounts of redundant skin. In this article we describe our new approach for dealing with the extra skin remaining in patients with very large breasts so that they may also benefit from the short-scar breast reduction procedure. METHODS: In our technique the vertical suture line is divided into two separate suture lines. The first suture line follows the natural curve of the lower pole of the breast from the nipple to the chest wall. This line is elongated by elevating and anchoring the new inframammary fold higher on the chest wall with a suspensory suture and the skin is then closed in a straight line. The second suture line attaches the extra lower skin by closing the dermis to the chest wall and then closing the skin with a purse-string suture. This technique helps to deal with the extra skin resulting from the short-scar breast reduction technique. RESULTS: The technique was used in ten patients with large breasts. Patient satisfaction was excellent and there was no increase in complications. The technique also helped to obliterate the dead space beneath the breast and reduced seroma formation. CONCLUSION: We found that this new technique can be used safely and effectively in selected patients with large breasts without any increase in complications. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE IV: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

Concepts: Evidence-based medicine, Skin, Breast, Curve, Breast reconstruction, Breast reduction, Inframammary fold, Nipple