In recent decades, the world has experienced rates of urban growth unparalleled in any other period of history and this growth is shaping the environment in which an increasing proportion of us live. In this paper, we use a longitudinal dataset from Foursquare, a location-based social network, to analyse urban growth across 100 major cities worldwide. Initially, we explore how urban growth differs in cities across the world. We show that there exists a strong spatial correlation, with nearby pairs of cities more likely to share similar growth profiles than remote pairs of cities. Subsequently, we investigate how growth varies inside cities and demonstrate that, given the existing local density of places, higher-than-expected growth is highly localized while lower-than-expected growth is more diffuse. Finally, we attempt to use the dataset to characterize competition between new and existing venues. By defining a measure based on the change in throughput of a venue before and after the opening of a new nearby venue, we demonstrate which venue types have a positive effect on venues of the same type and which have a negative effect. For example, our analysis confirms the hypothesis that there is large degree of competition between bookstores, in the sense that existing bookstores normally experience a notable drop in footfall after a new bookstore opens nearby. Other place types, such as museums, are shown to have a cooperative effect and their presence fosters higher traffic volumes to nearby places of the same type.
The late Lode Van den Branden spend thirteen years systematically searching the archives for documents related to the Antwerp book trade of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, discovering new information on booksellers, printers, compositors, proof-readers, engravers, type cutters, type founders, and bookbinders. A great part of this material, now in the Royal Library of Belgium in Brussels, has yet to be studied, including his work on Willem Silvius. Guided by Van den Branden’s findings, this article focuses on the period 1562-1567 in order to contextualise the collaboration between Silvius and John Dee in January 1564 which resulted in the Monas Hieroglyphica. Documents include Silvius’s requests to the Privy Counsel for privileges, not only for books he published but also for several that he did not. A detailed inventory of his holdings, made after his arrest in 1567, allows us to reconstruct the plan of his bookshop, The Golden Angel, and its stock, including unsold copies of the Monas. These documents show why Silvius was the ideal choice of printer for the Monas, and allow us to envisage the space within which it was printed and sold.