Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Behaviour therapy


Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is considered a promising adjuvant to pharmacotherapy for treating bipolar disorder (BD), its efficacy is unproven. The present review and meta-analysis evaluated the treatment outcomes of patients with BD treated with CBT plus medication and compared these data with the outcomes of those who received standard care alone.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Schizophrenia, Major depressive disorder, Psychotherapy, Panic disorder, Behaviour therapy, Social anxiety disorder


Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness for treating mood and anxiety disorders. Dissemination of CBT via videoconference may help improve access to treatment.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Efficacy, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Psychotherapy, Panic disorder, Behaviour therapy, Social anxiety disorder


Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression.

Concepts: Psychology, Science, Clinical psychology, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Major depressive disorder, Psychotherapy, Behaviorism, Behaviour therapy


Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), introduced by Albert Ellis in the late 1950s, is one of the main pillars of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Existing reviews on REBT are overdue by 10 years or more. We aimed to summarize the effectiveness and efficacy of REBT since its beginnings and investigate the alleged mechanisms of change.

Concepts: Clinical psychology, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, Cognitive therapy, Behaviour therapy, Rational emotive behavior therapy, Psychiatric treatments, Albert Ellis


To explore patient experience of computerised cognitive behaviour therapy (cCBT) for depression in a pragmatic randomised controlled trial (Randomised Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Acceptability of Computerised Therapy, REEACT).

Concepts: Psychology, Randomized controlled trial, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Schizophrenia, Major depressive disorder, Psychotherapy, Behaviorism, Behaviour therapy


The aim of this study was to review the efficacy of different methods of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies used to treat body dysmorphic disorder. We evaluated all case series, open studies, controlled trials, and meta-analyses of cognitive and/or behavioral treatment approaches to body dysmorphic disorder published up to July 2012, identified through a search in the PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases. Our findings indicate that individual and group cognitive behavioral therapies are superior to waiting list for the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. While the efficacy of cognitive therapy is supported by one controlled trial, utility of behavioral therapy is suggested by one open study and one controlled relapse prevention follow-up study. There is a pressing need to conduct head-to-head studies, with appropriate, active, control treatment groups, in order to examine further the efficacy of cognitive and/or behavioral therapies for body dysmorphic disorder.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Evaluation methods, Therapy, Clinical psychology, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, Cognitive therapy, Behaviour therapy


This article is written in response to the linked editorial by Dr Geraghty about the adaptive Pacing, graded Activity and Cognitive behaviour therapy; a randomised Evaluation (PACE) trial, which we led, implemented and published. The PACE trial compared four treatments for people diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome. All participants in the trial received specialist medical care. The trial found that adding cognitive behaviour therapy or graded exercise therapy to specialist medical care was as safe as, and more effective than, adding adaptive pacing therapy or specialist medical care alone. Dr Geraghty has challenged these findings. In this article, we suggest that Dr Geraghty’s views are based on misunderstandings and misrepresentations of the PACE trial; these are corrected.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, The Trial, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Fatigue, Behaviorism, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Behaviour therapy


Hoarding disorder (HD) is a new diagnosis in DSM-5 (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) appears promising for the treatment of HD, and has been tested in both individual and group settings.

Concepts: Psychology, Clinical psychology, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Psychotherapy, Behaviour therapy, American Psychiatric Association


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Controlled Substances Act requires physicians in the United States to provide or refer to behavioral treatment when treating opioid-dependent individuals with buprenorphine; however no research has examined the combination of buprenorphine with different types of behavioral treatments. This randomized controlled trial compared the effectiveness of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided with buprenorphine and medical management (MM) for the treatment of opioid dependence. DESIGN: After a 2-week buprenorphine induction/stabilization phase, participants were randomized to 1 of 4 behavioral treatment conditions provided for 16 weeks: Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT=53); Contingency Management (CM=49); both CBT and CM (CBT+CM=49); and no additional behavioral treatment (NT=51). SETTING: Study activities occurred at an outpatient clinical research center in Los Angeles, California, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Included were 202 male and female opioid-dependent participants. MEASUREMENTS: Primary outcome was opioid use, measured as a proportion of opioid-negative urine results over the number of tests possible. Secondary outcomes include retention, withdrawal symptoms, craving, other drug use, and adverse events. FINDINGS: No group differences in opioid use were found for the behavioral treatment phase (Chi-square=1.25, p=0.75), for a second medication-only treatment phase, or at weeks 40 and 52 follow-ups. Analyses revealed no differences across groups for any secondary outcome. CONCLUSION: There remains no clear evidence that cognitive behavioural therapy and contingency management reduce opiate use when added to buprenorphine and medical management in opiates users seeking treatment.

Concepts: Clinical trial, Opioid, Morphine, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Buprenorphine, Hydrocodone, Behaviour therapy, Opiate


Computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (cCBT) has been proven to be effective in depression care. Moreover, cCBT packages are becoming increasingly popular. A central aspect concerning the take-up and success of any treatment is its user acceptance.

Concepts: Psychology, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Schizophrenia, Major depressive disorder, Psychotherapy, Behaviorism, Behaviour therapy, Interpersonal psychotherapy