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Concept: Baby colic



To investigate the effectiveness and the safety of a probiotic-mixture (Vivomixx®, Visbiome®, DeSimone Formulation®; Danisco-DuPont, Madison, WI, USA) for the treatment of infantile colic in breastfed infants, compared with a placebo.

Concepts: Infant, Clinical trial, Polymerase chain reaction, Effectiveness, Clinical research, Nocebo, Placebo, Baby colic


IMPORTANCE Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce the onset of colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation in term newborns and thereby reduce the socioeconomic impact of these conditions. DESIGN A prospective, multicenter, double-masked, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was performed on term newborns (age <1 week) born at 9 different neonatal units in Italy between September 1, 2010, and October 30, 2012. SETTING Parents were asked to record in a structured diary the number of episodes of regurgitation, duration of inconsolable crying (minutes per day), number of evacuations per day, number of visits to pediatricians, feeding changes, hospitalizations, visits to a pediatric emergency department for a perceived health emergency, pharmacologic interventions, and loss of parental working days. PARTICIPANTS In total, 589 infants were randomly allocated to receive L reuteri DSM 17938 or placebo daily for 90 days. INTERVENTIONS Prophylactic use of probiotic. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Reduction of daily crying time, regurgitation, and constipation during the first 3 months of life. Cost-benefit analysis of the probiotic supplementation. RESULTS At 3 months of age, the mean duration of crying time (38 vs 71 minutes; P < .01), the mean number of regurgitations per day (2.9 vs 4.6; P < .01), and the mean number of evacuations per day (4.2 vs 3.6; P < .01) for the L reuteri DSM 17938 and placebo groups, respectively, were significantly different. The use of L reuteri DSM 17938 resulted in an estimated mean savings per patient of €88 (US $118.71) for the family and an additional €104 (US $140.30) for the community. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Prophylactic use of L reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life reduced the onset of functional gastrointestinal disorders and reduced private and public costs for the management of this condition. TRIAL REGISTRATION Identifier: NCT01235884.

Concepts: Infant, Clinical trial, Gastroesophageal reflux disease, Pediatrics, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Baby colic



To determine the strength of evidence for commonly used interventions for colic in breastfed and mixed fed infants younger than 6 months of age.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Infant, Breastfeeding, Pediatrics, Baby bottle, Pacifier, Baby colic


To evaluate the effect of oral Lactobacillus reuteri (L reuteri) first on the incidence and severity of Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and second on sepsis.

Concepts: Pediatrics, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Baby colic


Background: Abdominal colic is common in infants but generally harmless. The exact aetiology is unknown but it has been associated with vicious cycle of crying and swallowing of air by the infant. The excessive crying associated with it can result in a lot of distress for family members creating unnecessary panics. We sought to find the perception and management of abdominal colic by mothers in Enugu. Objective: Objective of this study is to determine the perception and ‘home management’ of abdominal colic in infants by mothers in Enugu, south-east Nigeria and the factors associated with them. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey involving 177 mothers that presented with their infants at the pediatric outpatient clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku Ozalla, Enugu between June and November 2011. A pretested questionnaire was used after obtaining their consent. Results: A total of one hundred and seventy-seven mothers participated in this study. They were aged 20 to 60 years with mean age of 34 ± 7.3 years. Most of them (99.4%) believed that babies can have abdominal colic. While 41.3% attributed no problems to colic, the rest believed that it causes loose/greenish stools (12.4%), fever (16.4%) and vomiting (9.6%) etc. Most of the mothers (87.7%) do apply medications for colic which range from paracetamol (33.1%), Gbomoro (16.2%), teething powder (15.4%), salt water (13.2%), Buscopan (7.7%) and gripe water (4.6%). Conclusions : Mothers attribute symptoms of childhood illnesses to abdominal colic. This may have led to unnecessary and sometimes harmful management. There is need for health education of mothers and potential mothers.

Concepts: Medicine, Infant, Hospital, Nigeria, Management, Pediatrics, Baby colic, Teething


Infantile colic is a frequent problem in neonates and infants. This review addresses current management including the results for nutrient modifications; soy-based formulas; and prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics.

Concepts: Infant, Pediatrics, Probiotic, Colic, Baby colic


Lactobacillus reuteri DSM17938 has shown promise in managing colic, but conflicting study results have prevented a consensus on whether it is truly effective.

Concepts: Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Baby colic


Infantile colic is one of the major challenges of parenthood. It is one of the common reasons parents seek medical advice during their child’s first 3 months of life. It is defined as paroxysms of crying lasting more than 3 hours a day, occurring more than 3 days in any week for 3 weeks in a healthy baby aged 2 weeks to 4 months. Colic is a poorly understood phenomenon affecting up to 30% of babies, underlying organic causes of excessive crying account for less than 5%. Laboratory tests and radiological examinations are unnecessary if the infant is gaining weight normally and has a normal physical examination. Treatment is limited and drug treatment has no role in management. Probiotics are now emerging as promising agents in the treatment of infantile colic. Alternative medicine (Herbal tea, fennel, glucose and massage therapy) have not proved to be consistently helpful and some might even be dangerous. In conclusion infantile colic is a common cause of maternal distress and family disturbance, the cornerstone of management remains reassurance of parents regarding the benign and self-limiting nature of the illness. There is a critical need for more evidence based treatment protocols.

Concepts: Medicine, Infant, Causality, Evidence-based medicine, Ayurveda, Alternative medicine, Physical examination, Baby colic