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Concept: Arteries of the abdomen


BACKGROUND: Iliac artery atherosclerotic disease may cause intermittent claudication and critical limb ischemia. It can lead to serious complications such as infection, amputation and even death. Revascularization relieves symptoms and prevents these complications. Historically, open surgical repair, in the form of endarterectomy or bypass, was used. Over the last decade, endovascular repair has become the first choice of treatment for iliac arterial occlusive disease. No definitive consensus has emerged about the best endovascular strategy and which type of stent, if any, to use. However, in more advanced disease, that is, long or multiple stenoses or occlusions, literature is most supportive of primary stenting with a balloon-expandable stent in the common iliac artery [1]. Recently, a PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stent (Advanta V12, Atrium Medical Inc., Hudson, NH, USA) has been introduced for the iliac artery. Covering stents with PTFE has been shown to lead to less neo-intimal hyperplasia and this might lower restenosis rates [2-4]. However, only one RCT, of mediocre quality has been published on this stent in the common iliac artery [5,6]. Our hypothesis is that covered balloon-expandable stents lead to better results when compared to uncovered balloon-expandable stents. METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center trial. The study population consists of human volunteers aged over 18 years, with symptomatic advanced atherosclerotic disease of the common iliac artery, defined as stenoses longer than 3 cm and occlusions. A total of 174 patients will be included.The control group will undergo endovascular dilatation or revascularization of the common iliac artery, followed by placement of one or more uncovered balloon-expandable stents. The study group will undergo the same treatment, however one or more PTFE-covered balloon-expandable stents will be placed. When necessary, the aorta, external iliac artery, common femoral artery, superficial femoral artery and deep femoral artery will be treated, using the standard treatment.The primary endpoint is absence of binary restenosis rate. Secondary endpoints are reocclusion rate, target-lesion revascularization rate, clinical success, procedural success, hemodynamic success, major amputation rate, complication rate and mortality rate. Main study parameters are age, gender, relevant co-morbidity, and several patient, disease and procedure-related parameters.Trial registrationDutch Trial Register, NTR3381.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Stent, Femoral artery, Arteries of the lower limb, External iliac artery, Internal iliac artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Common iliac artery


We describe in this paper a rare case of a 45-year-old male with a common stem origin of the left gastric artery (LGA), right inferior phrenic artery (RIPA), and left inferior phrenic artery (LIPA), in association with the presence of a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk (HSMT) arising from the abdominal aorta (AA), as revealed by routine multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography. The common stem origin of the LGA, RIPA, and LIPA had an endoluminal diameter of 3.3 mm, the LGA of 2.8 mm. The endoluminal diameter of the RIPA and LIPA was at the origin of approximately 1 mm, complicating selective chemoembolization of the liver parenchyma. Clin. Anat., 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Concepts: Stomach, Thoracic diaphragm, Arteries of the abdomen, Left gastric artery, Right gastric artery, Celiac artery, Inferior phrenic arteries, Inferior phrenic vein


A 60 year-old woman presented with large extensive aneurysms in the thoracic aorta and infra-renal abdominal aorta with a normal segment of visceral aorta in between; the entire right common iliac artery was also aneurysmal. Concurrent endovascular repair of all aneurysmal regions was successfully performed using a left common iliac artery conduit to access the aorta, and multiple stent-grafts; a chimney graft preserved blood flow into the left subclavian artery. There were no features of spinal cord ischaemia despite coil embolisation of the right hypogastric artery. CT angiogram at six months showed patent stent-grafts with no endoleaks. The patient continued to do well at one-year clinical follow-up. Concurrent endovascular repair of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms can be safely and successfully performed when anatomically feasible, and is an attractive alternative to staged or hybrid repair.

Concepts: Abdominal aorta, Aortic aneurysm, Brachiocephalic artery, Aorta, Descending aorta, Arteries of the thorax, Arteries of the abdomen, Common iliac artery


Paravalvular regurgitation (PVR) is a symptomatic or asymptomatic complication after surgical valve replacement. It may be related to calcification, infection or tissue friability and occurs in 5 % to 17 % of surgical implanted heart valves. Reoperation is associated with a higher morbidity and mortality than the index procedure. Percutaneous closure of PVR can be an effective and lower risk alternative to reoperation. However, feasibility for percutaneous closure has to be assessed by defining the shape, size and location of the defect. Echocardiography with three-dimensional defect reconstruction is a cornerstone for guiding percutaneous PVR closure. Access for aortic PVR is usually retrograde via the femoral artery and access to mitral PVR either retrograde from the aorta, transvenous-transseptal or transapical. Meticulous planning and prudent procedural execution by experienced operators ensuring no impingement of the prosthetic leaflets leads to a high success rate of percutaneous PVR repair.

Concepts: Heart, Aorta, Left ventricle, Systemic circulation, Arteries of the abdomen


This work aimed to study the prevalence and radiologic anatomy of the middle rectal artery (MRA) using computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). The retrospective study (October 2010-February 2012) focused in 167 male patients with prostate enlargement (mean age 64.7 years, range 47-81 years) who underwent selective pelvic arterial embolization for the relief of lower urinary tract symptoms. All patients underwent CTA previously to DSA to evaluate the vascular anatomy of the pelvis and to plan the treatment. MRAs were identified and classified according to their origin, trajectory, termination and relationship with surrounding arteries. We found MRAs in 60 (35.9 %) patients (23.9 % of pelvic sides, n = 80) and of those, 20 (12 %) had bilateral MRAs; 24 MRAs (30 %) were independent of neighbouring arteries and 56 MRAs (70 %) had common origins with prostatic arteries (prostato-rectal trunk). The most frequent MRA origin was the internal pudendal artery (60 %, n = 48), followed by the inferior gluteal artery (21.3 %, n = 17) and common gluteal-pudendal trunk (16.2 %, n = 13). In 2 patients the MRA originated from the obturator artery (2.5 %). Anastomoses to the superior rectal and inferior mesenteric arteries were found in 87.5 % of cases (n = 70). We concluded that MRAs are anatomical variants present in less than half of male patients; have variable origins and frequently share common origins with prostatic arteries. Their correct identification is likely to contribute to improve interventional radiology procedures and prostatic or rectal surgeries.

Concepts: Angiography, Radiology, Rectum, Interventional radiology, Internal iliac artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Middle rectal artery, Superior rectal artery


Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage is a potentially life-threatening complication. We report herein our experience with a 65-year-old man with locally advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy with lymphadenectomy following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. On postoperative day 45, he developed massive hematemesis. Angiography revealed active bleeding from the common hepatic artery, and transcatheter coil embolization of that vessel was successfully performed. On postoperative day 64, he again developed massive hematemesis. Angiography revealed active bleeding from the proximal superior mesenteric artery. Immediately after coil embolization of that vessel, bypass grafting between the superior mesenteric artery and the right common iliac artery was performed, using a greater saphenous vein graft. The combination of embolization and bypass grafting is an option for treatment of bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery in an emergent situation.

Concepts: Blood, Abdominal aorta, Radiology, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Great saphenous vein, Superior mesenteric artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery


Objective: To determine the effects of the number of chews and meal duration on diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and splanchnic blood flow (BF). Design and Methods: Healthy normal-weight subjects (11 subjects in the 100-kcal test and 10 subjects in the 300-kcal test) participated in two trials: a rapid-eating trial and a slow-eating trial. The meal duration and the number of chews were recorded. DIT was calculated from oxygen uptake and body mass, and splanchnic BF was calculated from the diameters of and blood velocities in the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery, which were recorded until 90 min after consuming the food samples. Results: For the 100-kcal and 300-kcal food samples, DIT and postprandial splanchnic BF in both the celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery were significantly larger in the slow-eating trial than in the rapid-eating trial. There were significant correlations among meal duration, the number of chews, DIT, and postprandial splanchnic BF, with the exception of the relationship between DIT and splanchnic BF in the 300-kcal trial. Conclusions: These results suggest that fewer chews and/or shorter meal duration decreases DIT and the postprandial splanchnic BF, and that the increased DIT is at least partially due to the postprandial splanchnic circulation.

Concepts: Blood, Heart, Food, Abdominal aorta, Superior mesenteric artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery, Vitelline arteries


A 62-year-old man with a history of hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis presented with abdominal pain and refractory ileus. Imaging revealed calcification of the wall of the abdominal aorta, with near-total occlusion and stenosis of the superior mesenteric artery.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Dialysis, Hemodialysis, Abdominal aorta, Peritoneum, Peritoneal dialysis, Superior mesenteric artery, Arteries of the abdomen


This statement was developed to promote international consensus on the definition of borderline resectable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (BR-PDAC) which was adopted by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) in 2006, but which has changed yearly and become more complicated. Based on a symposium held during the 20th meeting of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) in Sendai, Japan, in 2016, the presenters sought consensus on issues related to BR-PDAC. We defined patients with BR-PDAC according to the three distinct dimensions: anatomical (A), biological (B), and conditional ©. Anatomic factors include tumor contact with the superior mesenteric artery and/or celiac artery of less than 180° without showing stenosis or deformity, tumor contact with the common hepatic artery without showing tumor contact with the proper hepatic artery and/or celiac artery, and tumor contact with the superior mesenteric vein and/or portal vein including bilateral narrowing or occlusion without extending beyond the inferior border of the duodenum. Biological factors include potentially resectable disease based on anatomic criteria but with clinical findings suspicious for (but unproven) distant metastases or regional lymph nodes metastases diagnosed by biopsy or positron emission tomography-computed tomography. This also includes a serum carbohydrate antigen (CA) 19-9 level more than 500 units/ml. Conditional factors include the patients with potentially resectable disease based on anatomic and biologic criteria and with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 2 or more. The definition of BR-PDAC requires one or more positive dimensions (e.g. A, B, C, AB, AC, BC or ABC). The present definition acknowledges that resectability is not just about the anatomic relationship between the tumor and vessels, but that biological and conditional dimensions are also important. The aim in presenting this consensus definition is also to highlight issues which remain controversial and require further research.

Concepts: Cancer, Oncology, Hepatic portal vein, Superior mesenteric artery, Common hepatic artery, Arteries of the abdomen, Celiac artery, Hepatic artery proper


Knowledge of the morphological variations within the abdominal cavity is significant for all medical practitioners planning surgery. This report presents the rare origin of a common trunk for the right inferior phrenic artery, and superior and inferior suprarenal artery from the right renal artery. An accessory hepatic artery was found, which served as a branch of the right inferior phrenic artery. The diameter of the common trunk was 3.95 mm, and the diameters of the inferior and superior suprarenal arteries were 1.84 and 1.36 mm, respectively. The diameter of the right inferior phrenic artery was 2.55 mm. Both the embryological background and the potential clinical significance of this morphological variation are discussed. Knowledge of this common trunk and the occurrence of the accessory right hepatic artery may be of significance in diagnostic and surgical procedures.

Concepts: Kidney, Surgery, Thoracic diaphragm, Renal artery, Abdominal cavity, Arteries of the abdomen, Inferior phrenic arteries, Inferior suprarenal artery