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Concept: Antwerp

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This study aims at showing how the United Nations Framework Classification for Resources (UNFC) can help to classify potential landfill mining projects with different levels of maturity, from exploration to production, under technical, socio-economic and project-planning aspects. Taking the example of three former landfill sites in Flanders general decision making guidelines regarding the future management of old landfills are provided. Using the ECLAR methodology for the evaluation (E) and classification (CL) of anthropogenic resources (AR), the individual projects, where clean land and/or materials are recovered, are mapped under the three-dimensional UNFC system. The Bornem project, yields a negative Net Present Value (NPV) of -17 Mio € (-44 €/t of excavated waste), i.e. the project is currently not economically viable. In case of changing key parameters the landfill has, however, reasonable prospects for future economic extraction. The Turnhout land development turned out to be economically viable with a NPV of 361,000 € (8 €/t of excavated waste). The Zuienkerke remediation project is at a too early stage to determine its socioeconomic viability. The main focus to compare and prioritize potential landfill mining projects in Flanders should be on (1) site specific conditions (e.g. landfill’s composition, land prices), (2) project related factors (e.g. remediation required vs. resource/land recovery, selected technologies and project set-ups, private vs. public evaluation perspective) and (3) the timing of mining, considering future development of costs, prices, laws, available data and information.

Concepts: Future, Economics, Recycling, United Nations, Project management, Landfill, Net present value, Antwerp

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The Scheldt estuary is historically a highly polluted river system. While several studies have focused on contamination with metals, pesticides, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and marker PolyChlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), no data are available concerning past contamination by dioxin-like compounds.

Concepts: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Netherlands, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, North Sea, Rhine, Antwerp, Scheldt

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The influence of abiotic and biotic variables on the concentration of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), were investigated during an annual cycle in 2016 in the Belgian Coastal Zone (BCZ, North Sea). We reported strong seasonal variations in the concentration of these compounds linked to the phytoplankton succession with high DMS(P,O) producers (mainly Phaeocystis globosa) occurring in spring and low DMS(P,O) producers (various diatoms species) occurring in early spring and autumn. Spatial gradients of DMS and DMSP were related to those of phytoplankton biomass itself related to the inputs of nutrients from the Scheldt estuary. However, the use of a relationship with Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration is not sufficient to predict DMSP. Accounting for the phytoplankton composition, two different DMSP versus Chl-a correlations could be established, one for diatoms and another one for Phaeocystis colonies. We also reported high nearshore DMSO concentrations uncoupled to Chl-a and DMSP concentrations but linked to high suspended particulate matter (SPM) presumably coming from the Scheldt estuary as indicated by the positive relationship between annual average SPM and salinity.

Concepts: Netherlands, Particulate, North Sea, Rhine, Dimethyl sulfide, Cloud condensation nuclei, Antwerp, Scheldt

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The late Lode Van den Branden spend thirteen years systematically searching the archives for documents related to the Antwerp book trade of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, discovering new information on booksellers, printers, compositors, proof-readers, engravers, type cutters, type founders, and bookbinders. A great part of this material, now in the Royal Library of Belgium in Brussels, has yet to be studied, including his work on Willem Silvius. Guided by Van den Branden’s findings, this article focuses on the period 1562-1567 in order to contextualise the collaboration between Silvius and John Dee in January 1564 which resulted in the Monas Hieroglyphica. Documents include Silvius’s requests to the Privy Counsel for privileges, not only for books he published but also for several that he did not. A detailed inventory of his holdings, made after his arrest in 1567, allows us to reconstruct the plan of his bookshop, The Golden Angel, and its stock, including unsold copies of the Monas. These documents show why Silvius was the ideal choice of printer for the Monas, and allow us to envisage the space within which it was printed and sold.

Concepts: Typography, Belgium, Printing, Printing press, Book, Books, Antwerp, Bookselling

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Certain specialty elements are indispensable in modern technologies for their particular properties. Yet, potential risks associated to the release of these elements at any stage, remains unknown. Therefore, the dispersion of indium (In), thallium (Tl), tantalum (Ta) and niobium (Nb) in the aquatic environment of the Scheldt estuary (Flanders, Belgium) was studied. Maximum concentrations in intertidal sediments of 101 ± 15 μg kg(-1) for In, 481 ± 37 μg kg(-1) for Tl, 88 ± 19 μg kg(-1) for Ta and 1162 ± 4 μg kg(-1) for Nb appeared on the sampling location closest to the river mouth, i.e. 57.5 km upstream. Their distribution in the intertidal sediments depends on the physicochemical sediment characteristics along the flow of the river Scheldt. The same was the case for most other metals and aluminum as their occurrence also correlated (p < 0.05) with the occurrence of In, Tl and Nb. While in general, studied elements correlate to the OM content and sulfur and phosphorus herein included, a relative enrichment of In, Tl and Nb was seen at Rupelmonde (92.0 km from the river mouth). Mainly the intertidal sediment silt fraction is capable of retaining the elements by exchanging with other ions in the mineral interlayer. Increasing salinity towards the river mouth can furthermore induce the formation of insoluble chloride species. Overall, the solubility of In, Tl, Ta and Nb appeared extremely low upon extraction of pore water from intertidal sediments saturated to 100% field capacity.

Concepts: Sediment, River, Rhine, Flanders, Antwerp, Ghent, Scheldt, Dendermonde

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1 10th Dutch North Sea Emergency Medicine Conference 7-9 June, Egmond aan Zee, Netherlands tinyurl.com/10th-dutch-EM.

Concepts: Baltic Sea, Europe, Germany, Netherlands, North Sea, Rhine, Amsterdam, Antwerp

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Achromobacter xylosoxidans is increasingly being recognized as an emerging pathogen in cystic fibrosis. Recent severe infections with A. xylosoxidans in some of our cystic fibrosis (CF) patients led to a re-evaluation of the epidemiology of CF-associated A. xylosoxidans infections in two Belgian reference centres (Antwerp and Ghent). Several of these patients also stayed at the Rehabilitation Centre De Haan (RHC). In total, 59 A. xylosoxidans isolates from 31 patients (including 26 CF patients), collected between 2001 and 2014, were studied. We evaluated Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation -Time of Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) as an alternative for McRAPD typing.

Concepts: Immune system, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Mass spectrometry, Cystic fibrosis, Belgium, Antwerp, Ghent

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From 30 June 2011 to 2 July 2012 PM10 aerosol samples were simultaneously taken every 4th day at four urban background sites in Flanders, Belgium. The sites were in Antwerpen, Gent, Brugge, and Oostende. The PM10 mass concentration was determined by weighing; organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC) were measured by thermal-optical analysis, the wood burning tracers levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, 8 water-soluble ions were measured by ion chromatography, and 15 elements were determined by a combination of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and mass spectrometry. The multi-species dataset was subjected to receptor modeling by PMF. The 10 retained factors (with their overall average percentage contributions to the experimental PM10 mass) were wood burning (9.5%), secondary nitrate (24%), secondary sulfate (12.6%), sea salt (10.0%), aged sea salt (19.2%), crustal matter (9.7%), non-ferrous metals (1.81%), traffic (10.3%), non-exhaust traffic (0.52%), and heavy oil burning (3.0%). The average contributions of wood smoke for the four sites were quite substantial in winter and ranged from 12.5 to 20% for the PM10 mass and from 47 to 64% for PM10 OC. Wood burning appeared to be also a notable source of As, Cd, and Pb. The contribution from wood burning to the PM10 mass and OC was also assessed by making use of levoglucosan as single marker compound and the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008), as done in our previous study on wood burning in Flanders (Maenhaut et al., 2012). However, the apportionments were much lower than those deduced from PMF. It seems that the conversion factors of Schmidl et al. (2008) may not be applicable to wood burning in Flanders. From scatter plots of the PMF-derived wood smoke OC and PM versus levoglucosan, we arrived at conversion factors of 9.7 and 22.6, respectively.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Iron, Hydrogen, Ion source, Belgium, Smoke, Antwerp, Ghent

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In 2013 and 2014, routine surveillance for invasive mosquito species was implemented in Belgium at 13 potential points of entry. Following the introduction of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse 1895) to Belgium via a used tyre import company (Vrasene, Province of East Flanders) in July 2013, one female and 17 larvae were collected outdoors during a period of intensive surveillance in summer and autumn 2013, but no control measures were implemented. Although climatic conditions were suitable during the winter of 2013-2014, this reproducing population did not overwinter. Lack of genetic variation, incomplete diapause adaptation and egg desiccation due to long dry periods during diapause or competition with endemic species are possible reasons. More studies on the diapause/longevity of Ae. albopictus eggs in northern temperate climatic conditions and on the competition with endemic species in western and central Europe are warranted to assess the potential for this invasive mosquito to overwinter. Furthermore, following the detection of four Ae. albopictus larvae in a shipment of lucky bamboo at the port of Antwerp in August 2014, one female, one male, 11 pupae and six larvae were collected at the destined lucky bamboo company (Lochristi, Province of East Flanders) in autumn 2014. In this case, immediate control measures were successfully implemented at the nursery. Because of increasing threats and the absence of an invasive mosquito species control policy in Belgium, the need for a permanent vector surveillance and control plan has never been so high.

Concepts: Biodiversity, Insect, Mosquito, Aedes, Asian tiger mosquito, Winter, Antwerp, East Flanders

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Levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in the sediment and in several species (European flounder,Platichthys flesus; common sole, Solea solea; Chinese mitten crab,Eriocheir sinensis; shore crab, Carcinus maenas; brown shrimp,Crangon crangon; blue mussel, Mytilus edulis and bristle worms,Polychaeta) from 7 locations in the Scheldt estuary (SE, the Netherlands–Belgium). Overall POP levels in the sediment were low. The average PCB and PBDE concentrations were respectively 31.5 and 115 ng/g dry weight (dw). The highest sediment loads were measured in the vicinity of Antwerp (368 ng PCBs/g dw),a location with intense harbor and industrial activities. Pollution concentrations in the tissues of biota were species-specific. European flounder reached the highest contamination levels (from 12.9 to285 ng PCBs/g ww, from 0.25 to 3.97 ng PBDEs/g ww). The lowest tissue loads were measured in brown shrimp (from 3.27 to 39.9 ngPCBs/g ww, from 0.05 to 0.47 ng PBDEs/g ww). The PCB congener profile in most of the species was similar to the pattern found in the sediment. PCB 153 was the most abundant congener (16.5–25.7% in biota, 10.4% in sediment). In the sediment, the total amountof PBDEs consisted of more than 99% of BDE 209. Congener BDE 47had the highest concentrations in all sampled species (38.5–70.1%).Sediment POP loadings and tissue concentrations were poorly correlated,indicating that a simple linear or non-linear relationship is insufficient to describe this relationship, possible caused by the complexity of the bioaccumulation processes and the variability in exposure.Because of the high PCB levels, regular consumption of fish and seafood, especially mussels, from the Scheldt estuary should be avoided.

Concepts: Persistent organic pollutant, Polychlorinated biphenyl, Biphenyl, Polychlorinated dibenzodioxins, Mytilidae, Carcinus maenas, Antwerp, Scheldt