Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Andrew Martin


Cronobacter sakazakii (C. sakazakii) is a foodborne pathogen, posing a high risk of disease to infants and immuno-compromised individuals. In order to develop a quick, easy, and sensitive assay for detecting C. sakazakii, a rabbit anti-C. sakazakii IgG was developed using sonicated cell protein from C. sakakzakii. The developed anti-C. sakazakii IgG was of good quality and purity, as well as species-specific. The developed rabbit anti-C. sakazakii IgG was attached to the surface of a sulforhodamine B-encapsulated liposome to form an immunoliposome. A test strip was then prepared by coating goat anti-rabbit IgG onto the control line and rabbit anti-C. sakazakii IgG onto the test line, respectively, of a plastic-backed nitrocellulose membrane. Purple color signal both on the test line and the control line indicated the presence of C. sakazakii in sample, while purple color only on the control line indicated the absence of C. sakazakii in sample. This immunochromatographic strip assay could produce results in 15 min with a limit of detection 10(7) CFU/ml in C. sakazakii culture. The immunochromatographic strip assay also showed a very good specificity without cross-reactivity with other tested Cronobacter species. Based on these results, the developed immunochromatographic strip assay is efficient for the detection of C. sakazakii and has a high potential for on-site detection.

Concepts: Immune system, Protein, Infectious disease, Detection theory, Purple, Andrew Martin, Nitrocellulose


In acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) the risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) is high. Early detection of patients at risk for AKI is important. We tested urinary [TIMP-2] × [IGFBP7], a new US Food and Drug Administration-cleared test to assess AKI risk, in a cohort of hospitalized ADHF patients.

Concepts: Kidney, Hospital, Heart failure, Acute kidney injury, Cardiovascular diseases, Andrew Martin, Acute decompensated heart failure


Most electronic health record systems provide laboratory test results to patients in table format. We tested whether presenting such results in visual displays (number lines) could improve understanding.

Concepts: Electronic health record, Electronic medical record, Health informatics, Andrew Martin, Medical informatics, Personal health record


Background.The currently used patch test concentration for formaldehyde is 1.0% (wt/vol) in water. However, clinical experience and previous studies suggest that 1.0% might be insufficient for detecting an optimized number of clinically relevant cases of contact allergy to formaldehyde. Objectives.To validate earlier patch test results for comparison of 1% (wt/vol) and 2% (wt/vol) formaldehyde in water, and to investigate co-reactivity with quaternium-15. Materials and methods.In 12 dermatology clinics, 3591 patients were routinely patch tested simultaneously with 2.0% (wt/vol) (0.60 mg/cm(2) ) and 1.0% (wt/vol) (0.30 mg/cm(2) ) formaldehyde. Micropipettes were used for delivering the exact dosage of the allergen. Results.Significantly more patients reacted to 2.0% formaldehyde than to 1.0% (3.4% versus 1.8%, p < 0.001). Overall, there were no sex differences between those reacting positively to 2.0% and 1.0%. Of 25 quaternium-15-positive patients, 4 (0.1%) reacted positively without reacting to formaldehyde. Conclusion.On the basis of the results of this multicentre study, as well as of previous studies, it can be suggested that 2.0% (wt/vol) in water formaldehyde should be used in routine patch testing in the baseline series.

Concepts: Sex, Eczema, Suggestion, Skin allergy test, Contact dermatitis, Andrew Martin, Patch test, Quaternium-15


Ciguatera fish poisoning is a seafood intoxication commonly afflicting island communities in the Pacific. These populations, which are strongly dependent on fish resources, have developed over centuries various strategies to decrease the risk of intoxication, including the use of folk tests to detect ciguateric fish. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of two folk tests commonly used in Raivavae Island (Australes, French Polynesia): the rigor mortis test (RMT) and the bleeding test (BT). A total of 107 fish were collected in Raivavae Lagoon, among which 80 were tested by five testers using the RMT versus 107 tested by four testers using BT. First, the performance between testers was compared. Second, the efficiency of these tests was compared with toxicity data obtained via the receptor binding assay (RBA) by assessing various parameter’s values such as sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Comparisons of outcomes between folk tests and RBA analyses were considered: tests used separately or in a parallel versus the series approach by each tester. The overall efficiency of the RMT and BT tests was also evaluated when the judgments of all testers were “pooled”. The results demonstrate that efficiencies varied between testers with one showing the best scores in detecting toxic fish: 55% with RMT and 69.2% with BT. BT gave the best results in detecting toxic fish as compared with RMT, giving also better agreement between testers. If high NPV and Se values were to be privileged, the data also suggest that the best way to limit cases of intoxication would be to use RMT and BT tests in a parallel approach. The use of traditional knowledge and a good knowledge of risky versus healthy fishing areas may help reduce the risk of intoxication among communities where ciguatera fish poisoning is highly prevalent.

Concepts: Positive predictive value, Negative predictive value, Sensitivity and specificity, Pacific Ocean, Seafood, Andrew Martin, Rigor mortis, Ciguatera


The glucose view of self-control posited glucose as the physiological substrate of self-control “resource”, which results in three direct corollaries: 1) engaging in a specific self-control activity would result in reduced glucose level; 2) the remaining glucose level after initial exertion of self-control would be positively correlated with following self-control performance; 3) restoring glucose by ingestion would help to improve the impaired self-control performance. The current research conducted a meta-analysis to test how well each of the three corollaries of the glucose view would be empirically supported. We also tested the restoring effect of glucose rinsing on subsequent self-control performance after initial exertion. The results provided clear and consistent evidence against the glucose view of self-control such that none of the three corollaries was supported. In contrast, the effect of glucose rinsing turned out to be significant, but with alarming signs of publication bias. The implications and future directions are discussed.

Concepts: Enzyme, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Effect size, Meta-analysis, Publication bias, Andrew Martin, Selection bias


A 31-gene expression profile (GEP) test that provides risk classification of cutaneous melanoma (CM) patients has been validated in several retrospective studies. The objective of the reported study was a prospective evaluation of the GEP performance in patients enrolled in two clinical registries.

Concepts: Evaluation methods, Andrew Martin, Registry


As test and treat rolls out, effective interventions are needed to address the determinants of outcomes across the HIV treatment continuum and ensure that people infected with HIV are promptly tested, initiate treatment early, adhere to treatment, and are virally suppressed. Communication approaches offer viable options for promoting relevant behaviors across the continuum.

Concepts: HIV, Andrew Martin, The Continuum


This study aims to understand the impact of descriptive social norms on message believability and transmission and its underlying mechanism on Twitter. Using two types of information (i.e., news and rumor) presented as a tweet message, the influence of the number of retweets as a normative cue was tested. A result of an online experiment with 639 Twitter users suggests that regardless of the label of the information, message believability and intention to share were stronger for a tweet with a high number of retweets. The mediation test showed that the presumption that a message is believable to others mediates the relationship between a high number of retweets and message believability.

Concepts: Sociology, Mediation, Andrew Martin, Twitter


This paper charts the almost ten years of history of OECD’s work on nanosafety, during which the programme of the OECD on the Testing and Assessment of Manufactured Nanomaterials covered the testing of eleven nanomaterials for about 59 end-points addressing physical-chemical properties, mammalian and environmental toxicity, environmental fate and material safety. An overview of the materials tested, the test methods applied and the discussions regarding the applicability of the OECD test guidelines, which are recognised methods for regulatory testing of chemicals, are given. The results indicate that many existing OECD test guidelines are suitable for nanomaterials and consequently, hazard data collected using such guidelines will fall under OECD’s system of Mutual Acceptance of Data (MAD) which is a legally binding instrument to facilitate the international acceptance of information for the regulatory safety assessment of chemicals. At the same time, some OECD test guidelines and guidance documents need to be adapted to address nanomaterials while new test guidelines and guidance documents may be needed to address endpoints that are more relevant to nanomaterials. This paper presents examples of areas where test guidelines or guidance for nanomaterials are under development.

Concepts: Law, Test method, Materials science, Material, Need, Andrew Martin, Specification, Address space