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Concept: Anders Retzius


Corona mortis is a highly variable vascular connection between the obturator and external iliac or inferior epigastric arteries or veins located behind the superior pubic ramus in the retropubic space (space of Retzius). Due to the significant variation in this collateral circulation, detailed anatomical knowledge of the corona mortis is vital to enhance the prevention of possible iatrogenic errors in hernia repair and other pubic surgical procedures. The aim of our meta-analysis was to provide comprehensive data on the prevalence, anatomical characteristics, and ethnic variations of the corona mortis vessel.

Concepts: Blood vessel, Surgery, Hernia, Pelvis, External iliac artery, Anders Retzius, Extraperitoneal space, Retropubic space


Placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) is the most effective treatment modality for men with ED refractory to medical management. We have previously demonstrated a protocol for IPP reservoir placement within the abdominal wall musculature, which was shown to be a safer location than traditional placement in the retropubic space of Retzius. The aim of this study was to review our complications with IPP reservoir entry into the peritoneum after abdominal wall placement of the reservoir. We retrospectively reviewed our two patients with peritoneal entry of the reservoir after posterior to transversalis fascia and anterior to transversalis fascia placement during virgin and compromised IPP cases, respectively. Our goal was to assess common inherent patient and surgical factors that resulted in this complication in order to develop a management algorithm to prevent future occurrence during alternative reservoir placement. Peritoneal reservoir entry was identified in two patients. These patients were both noted to be thin (mean body mass index (BMI) 18.5 kg/m(2)), current or former smokers. Peritoneal entry was identified early after reservoir placement. Neither of the patients suffered bowel injury and both subsequently underwent successful reservoir removal and IPP replacement. Both are currently doing well with functional IPPs on follow-up. Peritoneal entry of the reservoir occurs very rarely and, in our series, occurred in a cohort of patients with low BMI and tobacco use history. We recommend early identification of similar patients and subsequent reservoir placement anterior to transversalis fascia with caution to prevent peritoneal entry.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 29 June 2017; doi:10.1038/ijir.2017.26.

Concepts: Body mass index, Stomach, Peritoneum, Abdomen, Anders Retzius, Transversalis fascia, Abdominal wall, Extraperitoneal space


Paul Broca surmised that the short and broad-brachycephalic-skulls of the earliest European settlers had become longer and narrower-dolichocephalic-in modern populations due to the blending of different races. Swedish anatomist Anders Retzius had two brachycephalic skulls said to be from contemporary Basque individuals, a claim suited to test Broca’s hypothesis. Broca worked with fellow anatomist and surgeon Pedro González Velasco, the founding father of Spanish anthropology, to gather a large number of Basque skulls. In its time, this was the most fascinating collection owned by the Anthropological Society of Paris. This article explains how Broca and Velasco were able to gather such a sizeable array of specimens, which they had collected at a location known at first by the code name of “Z.” Although Broca finally concluded that the origin of the Retzius skulls could not be determined, his research was to spark anthropologists' interest in the language and origins of the Basque people.

Concepts: Sociology, Linguistics, Anthropology, Social sciences, Cultural anthropology, Anders Retzius, Linguistic anthropology, Craniometry


To compare functional outcomes of those receiving artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) pressure regulating balloons (PRB) within the space of Retzius (SOR) versus those placed in a high submuscular (HSM) location.

Concepts: Urethra, Balloon, Urethral sphincter, Anders Retzius


Inflatable penile prostheses (IPP) are associated with excellent long-term outcomes. To date, no study has evaluated the significance of surgical approach on IPP intraoperative variables. High-volume surgeons placing the Titan 0-degree prosthesis from March-July 2012 completed questionnaires including pre-/intraoperative variables. Intraoperative data were compared between surgeons performing an infrapubic versus transcrotal approach for total length of prosthesis, proximal and distal measurements, rear-tip extender (RTE) length, reservoir size and fill volume and ability to place the reservoir in the space of Retzius. Forty-six surgeons placed 256 IPPs, with a median of 5 (range 1-10) inserted. Transcrotal placement was performed most commonly (80%). Revision procedures accounted for 13% of cases, with 19% previously undergoing robotic-assisted prostatectomy. Compared with infrapubic, transcrotal placement resulted in a longer total prosthesis (22.3 cm vs 20.6 cm, P<0.0001), increased proximal dilation (10.1 cm vs 8.6 cm, P<0.0001), longer RTEs (1.9 cm vs 1.2 cm, P<0.0001) and larger reservoir fill volume (79 cc vs 71 cc, P=0.0003). No differences were noted in distal measurements or ability to place the reservoir in the space of Retzius. Compared with the infrapubic approach, high-volume surgeons placing the Titan 0-degree IPP transcrotally achieved increased proximal dilation with an ~1-2-cm-longer prosthesis inserted.International Journal of Impotence Research advance online publication, 23 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ijir.2014.35.

Concepts: Prosthetics, Erectile dysfunction, Penis, Prosthesis, Penile prosthesis, Place, Anders Retzius, The Titan


Midurethral tension-free vaginal tapes (TVT), placed through the retropubic space or through the obturator foramina, are widely used for the surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. Some complications are associated with retropubic tapes owing to the passage of the tape through the space of Retzius. One of the most frequent complications is bleeding, and if injury to major vessels is involved, this may be life-threatening. In 2010, the Gynecare TVT-Exact® Continence System was introduced onto the market, with a rigid trocar shaft measuring 3.0 mm in diameter. We have no clinical data regarding the complication rate, especially concerning bleeding, connected with this device; all data are related to the original size of the TVT inserter. The cases presented demonstrate that bleeding complications can occur with the TVT-Exact procedure.

Concepts: Urinary incontinence, Incontinence, Tape, The Passage, Anders Retzius, Extraperitoneal space, Retropubic space, Radical retropubic prostatectomy


Inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) surgery is a successful therapeutic option for men with erectile dysfunction. Traditional placement of the reservoir in the retropubic space of Retzius is associated with the rare occurrence of significant complications including bladder, bowel, and vascular injury. An alternative site, posterior to the abdominal wall musculature, has been identified as a potentially safer location for reservoir placement.

Concepts: Prosthetics, Amputation, Erectile dysfunction, Penis, Penile prosthesis, Anders Retzius, Extraperitoneal space, Retropubic space


Introduction.  Traditional placement of inflatable penile prosthesis (IPP) reservoirs and/or artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) balloons into the space of Retzius may be challenging following major pelvic surgery. Aim.  The aim of this study is to report our 1-year experience using a novel technique for high balloon/reservoir placement beneath the rectus abdominus muscle, thus completely obviating deep pelvic dissection during prosthetic urologic surgery. Methods.  A retrospective review of all patients who underwent IPP and/or AUS placement between June 2011 and June 2012 was performed. All had AUS balloons and/or IPP reservoirs placed in a submuscular location by bluntly tunneling through the external inguinal ring into a potential space between the transversalis fascia and the rectus abdominus muscle using a long, angled, lung grasping clamp. Main Outcome Measures.  Patient demographics, perioperative outcomes, and initial follow-up patient-reported outcomes were reviewed. Results.  During the study period, 120 submuscular balloons/reservoirs were inserted in 107 consecutive patients who underwent placement of an IPP (61 patients), AUS (33 patients), or both (13 patients). Among our 48 most recent patients, 41 (85%) reported they were totally unable to feel their balloon/reservoir, and all but two patients reported no bother from the submuscular balloon/reservoir placement. Of the 120 total submuscular balloons and reservoirs, surgical time and outcomes of the prosthetic procedures appeared similar to those placed using traditional methods; two reservoirs required revision surgery for repositioning. Conclusions.  High submuscular placement of genitourinary prosthetic balloons and reservoirs via a transscrotal approach is both safely and effective, while avoiding deep retropubic dissection. Morey AF, Cefalu CA, and Hudak SJ. High submuscular placement of urologic prosthetic balloons and reservoirs via transscrotal approach. J Sex Med **;**:**-**.

Concepts: Prosthetics, Artificial organ, Pubic symphysis, Rectus abdominis muscle, Linea alba, Deep inguinal ring, Anders Retzius, Transversalis fascia