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Concept: American record labels



Stretching, either prior to exercise or at the end, or both, is typically carried out by all individuals undertaking sporting activity whether they be elite or recreational athletes. The many forms of stretching available to the athlete, either passive or active, have long been thought to improve performance, decrease injury and generally be advantageous to the athlete. This review examines the current state of the literature and evaluates what athletes can and should do with respect to this controversial topic.

Concepts: The Current, Stretching, Active, American record labels


This study evaluated the effects of sit-stand desks on workers' objectively and subjectively assessed sitting, physical activity, and productivity. This quasi-experimental study involved one intervention group (n = 16) and one comparison group (n = 15). Participants were call center employees from two job-matched teams at a large telecommunications company in Sydney, Australia (45% female, 33 ± 11 years old). Intervention participants received a sit-stand desk, brief training, and daily e-mail reminders to stand up more frequently for the first 2 weeks post-installation. Control participants carried out their usual work duties at seated desks. Primary outcomes were workday sitting and physical activity assessed using ActivPAL or ActiGraph devices and self-report questionnaires. Productivity outcomes were company-specific objective metrics (e.g., hold time, talking time, absenteeism) and subjective measures. Measurements were taken at baseline, 1, 4, and 19 weeks post-installation. Intervention participants increased standing time after 1 week (+ 73 min/workday (95% CI: 22, 123)) and 4 weeks (+ 96 min/workday (95% CI: 41, 150)) post-intervention, while control group showed no changes. Between-group differences in standing time at one and 4 weeks were + 78 (95% CI: 9, 147) and + 95 min/workday (95% CI: 15, 174), respectively. Sitting time in the intervention group changed by - 64 (95% CI: - 125, - 2), - 76 (95% CI: - 142, - 11), and - 100 min/workday (95% CI: - 172, - 29) at 1, 4, and 19 weeks post-installation, respectively, while the control group showed no changes. No changes were observed in productivity outcomes from baseline to follow-up in either group. Sit-stand desks can increase standing time at work in call center workers without reducing productivity.

Concepts: Controlling for a variable, Scientific control, Change, Productivity, Subjectivity, American record labels, Desk


In France, cannabis consumption is illegal. The health impact of its increasing use and higher tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations is still poorly documented, particularly that of unintentional pediatric intoxications. We sought to evaluate the French national trend of admissions for unintentional cannabis intoxication in children over an 11-year period (2004-2014).

Concepts: Cannabinoid receptor, Tetrahydrocannabinol, Cannabis, French language, Cannabis smoking, Cannabidiol, American record labels


PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of outdoor activity during class recess on myopia changes among elementary school students in a suburban area of Taiwan. DESIGN: Prospective, comparative, consecutive, interventional study. PARTICIPANTS: Elementary school students 7 to 11 years of age recruited from 2 nearby schools located in a suburban area of southern Taiwan. INTERVENTION: The children of one school participated in the interventions, whereas those from the other school served as the control group. The interventions consisted of performing a recess outside the classroom (ROC) program that encouraged children to go outside for outdoor activities during recess. The control school did not have any special programs during recess. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were obtained by means of a parent questionnaire and ocular evaluations that included axial length and cycloplegic autorefraction at the beginning and after 1 year. RESULTS: Five hundred seventy-one students were recruited for this study, of whom 333 students participated in the interventional program, and 238 students were in the control school. At the beginning of the study, there were no significant differences between these 2 schools with regard to age, gender, baseline refraction, and myopia prevalence (47.75% vs. 49.16%). After 1 year, new onset of myopia was significantly lower in the ROC group than in the control group (8.41% vs. 17.65%; P<0.001). There was also significantly lower myopic shift in the ROC group compared with the control group (-0.25 diopter [D]/year vs. -0.38 D/year; P = 0.029). The multivariate analysis demonstrated that the variables of intervention of the ROC program and higher school year proved to be a protective factor against myopia shift in nonmyopic subjects (P = 0.020 and P = 0.017, respectively). For myopic subjects, school year was the only variable significantly associated with myopia progression (P = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Outdoor activities during class recess in school have a significant effect on myopia onset and myopic shift. Such activities have a prominent effect on the control of myopia shift, especially in nonmyopic children. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.

Concepts: Education, High school, Intervention, Primary school, Primary education, Myopia, Lens, American record labels


High-quality care at the end of life supports freedom from pain and other potentially burdensome symptoms. Lowering symptom burden at the end of life is an urgent and achievable goal in delivering services in nursing home settings. Few published reports describe symptom burden among older adults in nursing homes; none examine links between symptom burden and modifiable features of nursing home organizational context (work environment).

Concepts: Disease, Death, Life, Nursing, Geriatrics, Care of residents, Nursing home, American record labels


Communities play an increasingly significant role in their own health and social care, and evidence demonstrates the positive impact of this work on a range of health outcomes. Interest is building regarding the application of the principles of the new public health approach to those facing the end of life and their families and communities.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Public health, Death, Life, Sociology, End-of-life care, American record labels


AIMS: The evaluation aimed to assess the impact of The Alcohol Improvement Programme (AIP). This was a UK Department of Health initiative (April 2008-March 2011) aiming to contribute to the reduction of alcohol-related harm as measured by a reduction in the rate of increase in alcohol-related hospital admissions (ARHAs). METHODS: The evaluation (March 2010-September 2011) used a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods to assess the impact of the AIP on ARHAs, to describe and assess the process of implementation, and to identify elements of the programme which might serve as a ‘legacy’ for the future. (etc. the part changed is highlighted) RESULTS: There was no evidence that the AIP had an impact on reducing the rise in the rate of ARHAs. The AIP was successfully delivered, increased the priority given to alcohol-related harm on local policy agendas and strengthened the infrastructure for the delivery of interventions. CONCLUSION: Although there was no measurable short-term impact on the rise in the rate of ARHAs, the AIP helped to set up a strategic response and a delivery infrastructure as a first, necessary step in working towards that goal. There are a number of valuable elements in the AIP which should be retained and repackaged to fit into new policy contexts.

Concepts: Time, Evaluation, Redox, Evaluation methods, Qualitative research, Policy, Quantitative research, American record labels


The steady-state isometric force following active muscle shortening or lengthening is smaller (force depression; FD) or greater (residual force enhancement; RFE) than a purely isometric contraction at the corresponding length. The mechanisms behind these phenomena remain not fully understood, with few studies investigating the effects of FD and RFE in stretch-shortening cycles (SSC). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of RFE and peak force at the end of the stretch phase on the steady-state isometric force following shortening. Isometric thumb adduction force measurements were preceded by an isometric, a shortening contraction to induce FD, and SSCs at different stretch speeds (15°/s, 60°/s, and 120°/s). The different peak force values at the end of stretch and the different amounts of work performed during shortening did not influence the steady-state isometric force at the end of the SSC. We conclude that the FD following SSC depends exclusively on the amount of RFE established in the initial stretch phase in situations where the timing and contractile conditions of the shortening phase are kept constant .

Concepts: Exercise, Muscle contraction, Strength training, Isometric exercise, Cycle, American record labels


In a Perspective, Hasan Alam discusses emerging treatment approaches in trauma care.

Concepts: 2007 singles, American record labels