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Concept: Alternative lifestyle


This paper presents results of a study determining the efficacy of a values based approach to changing vaccination attitudes. It reports an evaluation survey of the “I Immunise” campaign, conducted in Fremantle, Western Australia, in 2014. “I Immunise” explicitly engaged with values and identity; formulated by locals in a community known for its alternative lifestyles and lower-than-national vaccine coverage rates. Data was collected from 304 online respondents. The campaign polarised attitudes towards vaccination and led some to feel more negatively. However, it had an overall positive response with 79.6% of participants. Despite the campaign only resonating positively with a third of parents who had refused or doubted vaccines, it demonstrates an important in-road into this hard-to-reach group.

Concepts: Vaccine, Vaccination, Alternative lifestyle


Many coaches, parents, and children believe that the best way to develop elite athletes is for them to participate in only 1 sport from an early age and to play it year-round. However, emerging evidence to the contrary indicates that efforts to specialize in 1 sport may reduce opportunities for all children to participate in a diverse year-round sports season and can lead to lost development of lifetime sports skills. Early sports specialization may also reduce motor skill development and ongoing participation in games and sports as a lifestyle choice. The purpose of this review is to employ the current literature to provide evidence-based alternative strategies that may help to optimize opportunities for all aspiring young athletes to maximize their health, fitness, and sports performance.

Concepts: Learning, Alternative medicine, Human development, Personal life, Philosophy of life, Motor skill, Lifestyle, Alternative lifestyle


To curb the trend towards obesity and unhealthy living, people may need to change their entire lifestyle to a healthier alternative, something that is frequently perceived to be problematic. The present research, using a large, representative community sample, hypothesized and found that a key factor responsible for why people do not intend to change lifestyles is a sense of commitment to past behavior. However we also found that the contribution of commitment was attenuated for individuals with a stronger tendency for behavioral disinhibition thus underscoring the “bright side” of this individual difference characteristic that traditionally has been mainly associated with impulsive and indulging behavior. Overall, the present findings add to our understanding of factors inhibiting and promoting healthy behavior change.

Concepts: Present, Psychology, Medicine, Health, Nutrition, Personal life, Alternative lifestyle


Visual analogue scales (VASs) have been shown to be valid measurement instruments and a better alternative to Likert-type scales in Internet-based research, both empirically and theoretically [1,2]. Upsides include more differentiated responses, better measurement level, and less error. Their feasibility and properties in the context of eHealth, however, have not been examined so far.

Concepts: Measurement, Alternative lifestyle



Abstract This paper introduces a new sport and athlete development framework that has been generated by multidisciplinary sport practitioners. By combining current theoretical research perspectives with extensive empirical observations from one of the world’s leading sport agencies, the proposed FTEM (Foundations, Talent, Elite, Mastery) framework offers broad utility to researchers and sporting stakeholders alike. FTEM is unique in comparison with alternative models and frameworks, because it: integrates general and specialised phases of development for participants within the active lifestyle, sport participation and sport excellence pathways; typically doubles the number of developmental phases (n = 10) in order to better understand athlete transition; avoids chronological and training prescriptions; more optimally establishes a continuum between participation and elite; and allows full inclusion of many developmental support drivers at the sport and system levels. The FTEM framework offers a viable and more flexible alternative for those sporting stakeholders interested in managing, optimising, and researching sport and athlete development pathways.

Concepts: Scientific method, Participation, Economics, Research, Empiricism, Human development, Lifestyle, Alternative lifestyle


Sedentary lifestyle is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Few alternative lifestyle interventions, such as yoga practice, focus on African Americans (AA), the population most vulnerable to CVD. Our objective is to compare the retention and adherence rates between yoga, walking, and health education interventions while providing information about the acceptance of various yoga regimens.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Alternative lifestyle


Despite the known positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation and an active lifestyle, evidence is emerging that it is difficult to attain and sustain the minimum recommendations of leisure time physical activity. The long-term benefits are often disappointing due to lack of adherence to the changes in life style. Qualitative research on patients' perspectives suggests that motivation for lifestyle change tends to diminish around 3 months after the index-event. The time most cardiac rehabilitation programmes end. The aim of the present study is to determine if prolongation of a traditional cardiac rehabilitation programme with additional heart rate based telemonitoring guidance for a period of 6 months results in better long term effects on physical and mental outcomes, care consumption and quality of life than traditional follow-up.

Concepts: Time, Psychology, Avicenna, Term, Personal life, Lifestyle, Sustainable living, Alternative lifestyle


Vibrio cholerae can switch between motile and biofilm lifestyles. The last decades have been marked by a remarkable increase in our knowledge of the structure, regulation, and function of biofilms formed under laboratory conditions. Evidence has grown suggesting that V. cholerae can form biofilm-like aggregates during infection that could play a critical role in pathogenesis and disease transmission. However, the structure and regulation of biofilms formed during infection, as well as their role in intestinal colonization and virulence, remains poorly understood. Here, we review (i) the evidence for biofilm formation during infection, (ii) the coordinate regulation of biofilm and virulence gene expression, and (iii) the host signals that favor V. cholerae transitions between alternative lifestyles during intestinal colonization, and (iv) we discuss a model for the role of V. cholerae biofilms in pathogenicity.

Concepts: Gene expression, Bacteria, Microbiology, Biofilm, Vibrio cholerae, Cholera, Vibrio, Alternative lifestyle


Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) presents a unique therapeutic challenge. Fasciotomy, currently the most well accepted treatment approach, still has a significant number of treatment failures, demonstrating the need for additional options. Botulinum toxin has been introduced as a potential therapeutic agent, but long-term outcomes are unknown. We present the longest documented follow-up (14 months) of a CECS case treated with botulinum toxin injections. At 14 months follow-up, the patient reported continued pain relief and had resumed her active lifestyle without any adverse effects. Although more research is needed to optimize patient selection and treatment protocol, this case illustrates the potential for botulinum toxin as a long duration, low risk alternative treatment option for CECS.

Concepts: Time, Medical terms, Alternative medicine, Botulinum toxin, Microbial toxins, Compartment syndrome, Lifestyle, Alternative lifestyle