Concept: Aerobic exercise
Post-prandial carbohydrate ingestion during 1-h of moderate-intensity, intermittent cycling does not improve mood, perceived exertion, or subsequent power output in recreationally-active exercisers
- Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
- Published over 7 years ago
BACKGROUND: This study compared the effects of ingesting water (W), a flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte (CE) or a flavored non-caloric electrolyte (NCE) beverage on mood, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and sprint power during cycling in recreational exercisers. METHODS: Men (n = 23) and women (n = 13) consumed a 24-h standardized diet and reported 2–4 h post-prandial for all test sessions. After a familiarization session, participants completed 50 min of stationary cycling in a warm environment (wet bulb globe temperature = 25.0[degree sign]C) at ~60-65% of heart rate reserve (146 +/- 4 bpm) interspersed with 5 rest periods of 2 min each. During exercise, participants consumed W, CE, or NCE, served in a counterbalanced cross-over design. Beverage volume was served in 3 aliquots equaling each individual’s sweat losses (mean 847 +/- 368 mL) during the familiarization session. Profiles of Mood States questionnaires (POMS) were administered and blood glucose levels were determined pre- and post- sub-maximal cycling. Following sub-maximal exercise, participants completed 3 30-s Wingate anaerobic tests (WAnT) with 2.5 min rest between tests to assess performance. RESULTS: Blood glucose was higher (p < 0.05) after 50 min of submaximal cycling just prior to the WAnT for CE (6.1 +/- 1.7 mmol/L) compared to W (4.9 +/- 1.5 mmol/L) and NCE (4.6 +/- 1.2 mmol/L). Nonetheless, there were no differences among treatments in peak (642 +/- 153, 635 +/- 143, 650 +/- 141 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.44) or mean (455 +/- 100, 458 +/- 95, 454 +/- 95 watts for W, NCE, and CE, respectively; p = 0.62) power for the first WAnT or mean (414 +/- 92, 425 +/- 85, 423 +/- 82 watts, respectively; p = 0.13) power output averaged across all 3 WAnT. Likewise, RPE during submaximal exercise, session RPE, and fatigue and vigor assessed by POMS did not differ among beverage treatments (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Carbohydrate ingestion consumed by recreational exercisers during a 1-h, moderate-intensity aerobic workout did not alter mood or perceived exertion, nor did it affect subsequent anaerobic performance under the conditions of this study. Drinking caloric sport beverages does not benefit recreational exercisers in a non-fasted state.
The purpose this study was to examine the effects of caffeine ingestion on performance and energy expenditure (anaerobic and aerobic contribution) during a 4-km cycling time trial (TT) performed after a carbohydrate (CHO) availability-lowering exercise protocol. After preliminary and familiarization trials, seven amateur cyclists performed three 4-km cycling TT in a double-blind, randomized and crossover design. The trials were performed either after no previous exercise (CON), or after a CHO availability-lowering exercise protocol (DEP) performed in the previous evening, followed by either placebo (DEP-PLA) or 5 mg.kg(-1) of caffeine intake (DEP-CAF) 1 hour before the trial. Performance was reduced (-2.1%) in DEP-PLA vs CON (421.0±12.3 vs 412.4±9.7 s). However, performance was restored in DEP-CAF (404.6±17.1 s) compared with DEP-PLA, while no differences were found between DEP-CAF and CON. The anaerobic contribution was increased in DEP-CAF compared with both DEP-PLA and CON (67.4±14.91, 47. 3±14.6 and 55.3±14.0 W, respectively), and this was more pronounced in the first 3 km of the trial. Similarly, total anaerobic work was higher in DEP-CAF than in the other conditions. The integrated electromyographic activity, plasma lactate concentration, oxygen uptake, aerobic contribution and total aerobic work were not different between the conditions. The reduction in performance associated with low CHO availability is reversed with caffeine ingestion due to a higher anaerobic contribution, suggesting that caffeine could access an anaerobic “reserve” that is not used under normal conditions.
Personality traits and cardiorespiratory fitness in older adults are reliable predictors of health and longevity. We examined the association between personality traits and energy expenditure at rest (basal metabolic rate) and during normal and maximal sustained walking. Personality traits and oxygen (VO(2)) consumption were assessed in 642 participants from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. Results indicate that personality traits were mostly unrelated to resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure at normal walking pace. However, those who scored lower on neuroticism (r = -0.12) and higher on extraversion (r = 0.11), openness (r = 0.13), and conscientiousness (r = 0.09) had significantly higher energy expenditure at peak walking pace. In addition to greater aerobic capacity, individuals with a more resilient personality profile walked faster and were more efficient in that they required less energy per meter walked. The associations between personality and energy expenditure were not moderated by age or sex, but were in part explained by the proportion of fat mass. In conclusion, differences in personality may matter the most during more challenging activities that require cardiorespiratory fitness. These findings suggest potential pathways that link personality to health outcomes, such as obesity and longevity.
Middle- and long-distance running performance is constrained by several important aerobic and anaerobic parameters. The efficacy of strength training (ST) for distance runners has received considerable attention in the literature. However, to date, the results of these studies have not been fully synthesized in a review on the topic.
Findings on weight training and waist circumference (WC) change are controversial. This study examined prospectively whether weight training, moderate to vigorous aerobic activity (MVAA), and replacement of one activity for another were associated with favorable changes in WC and body weight (BW).
Excessive visceral adipose tissue appears to trigger a cascade of metabolic disturbances that seem to coexist with ectopic fat storage in muscle, liver, heart and the ß-cell. Therefore, the reduction of visceral adipose tissue potentially plays a pivotal role in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to describe the overall effect of exercise on visceral adipose tissue and to provide an overview of the effect of different exercise regimes, without caloric restriction, on visceral adipose tissue in obese persons. A systematic literature search was performed according to the PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses. The initial search resulted in 87 articles after removing duplicates. After screening on title, abstract and full-text 15 articles (totalling 852 subjects) fulfilled the a priori inclusion criteria. The quality of each eligible study was assessed in duplicate with “The Critical Review Form for Quantitative Studies”. Using random-effects weights, the standardized mean difference (Hedge’s g) of the change in visceral adipose tissue was -0.497 with a 95% confidence interval of -0.655 to -0.340. The Z-value was -6.183 and the p-value (two tailed) was <0.001. A subgroup analysis was performed based on gender, type of training and intensity. Aerobic training of moderate or high intensity has the highest potential to reduce visceral adipose tissue in overweight males and females. These results suggest that an aerobic exercise program, without hypocaloric diet, can show beneficial effects to reduce visceral adipose tissue with more than 30 cm(2) (on CT analysis) in women and more than 40 cm(2) in men, even after 12 weeks.
- Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
- Published over 8 years ago
Tracy, BL and Hart, CEF. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 822-830, 2013-There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus.
Exercise interventions in individuals with Parkinson’s disease incorporate goal-based motor skill training to engage cognitive circuitry important in motor learning. With this exercise approach, physical therapy helps with learning through instruction and feedback (reinforcement) and encouragement to perform beyond self-perceived capability. Individuals with Parkinson’s disease become more cognitively engaged with the practice and learning of movements and skills that were previously automatic and unconscious. Aerobic exercise, regarded as important for improvement of blood flow and facilitation of neuroplasticity in elderly people, might also have a role in improvement of behavioural function in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Exercises that incorporate goal-based training and aerobic activity have the potential to improve both cognitive and automatic components of motor control in individuals with mild to moderate disease through experience-dependent neuroplasticity. Basic research in animal models of Parkinson’s disease is beginning to show exercise-induced neuroplastic effects at the level of synaptic connections and circuits.
- Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association
- Published almost 8 years ago
Running economy (RE) has been seen to improve with concurrent strength and endurance training in young and elite endurance athletes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of 2 different strength training protocols on RE and strength parameters in a group of regularly training master marathon runners. Sixteen participants were randomly assigned to a maximal strength training program (MST; n = 6; 44.2 ± 3.9 yrs), a resistance training (RT; n = 5; 44.8 ± 4.4 yrs) and a control group (CG; n = 5; 43.2 ± 7.9 yrs). Before and after the experimental period, resting metabolic rate, body composition, 1 repetition maximum, squat jump, countermovement jump and RE were evaluated. The MST group showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in 1RM (+16.34%) and RE (+6.17 %) at marathon pace. No differences emerged for the other groups (p > 0.05). Anthropometric data were unchanged after the training intervention (p > 0.05). Taken together, the results of this preliminary study indicate that master endurance athletes seem to benefit from concurrent strength and endurance training because the rate of force development may be crucial for RE improvement, one of the major determinants of endurance performance.
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of three different frequencies of combined resistance and aerobic training on total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity related energy expenditure (AEE) in a group of older adults. METHODS: Seventy-two women, 60 - 74 years old, were randomly assigned to one of three groups: 1 day/week of aerobic and 1 day/week of resistance (1+1); 2 days/week of aerobic and 2 days/week resistance (2+2); or 3 days/week aerobic and 3 days/week resistance (3+3). Body composition (DXA), feeling of fatigue, depression, and vigor (questionnaire), strength (1RM), serum cytokines (ELISA), maximal oxygen uptake (progressive treadmill test), resting energy expenditure, and TEE were measured before and after 16 weeks of training. Aerobic training consisted of 40 minutes of aerobic exercise at 80% maximum heart rate and resistance training consisted of 2 sets of 10 repetitions for 10 different exercises at 80% of one repetition maximum. RESULTS: All groups increased fat free mass, strength and aerobic fitness and decreased fat mass. No changes were observed in cytokines or perceptions of fatigue/depression. No time by group interaction was found for any fitness/body composition variable. TEE and AEE increased with the 2+2 group but not with the other two groups. Nonexercise training AEE (NEAT) increased significantly in the 2+2 group (+200 kcal/day), group 1x1 showed a trend for an increase (+68 kcal/day) and group 3+3 decreased significantly (-150 kcal/day). CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that 3+3 training may inhibit NEAT by being too time consuming and does not induce superior training adaptations to 1+1 and 2+2 training.