Concept: Accuracy and precision
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Published over 4 years ago
Deep networks are now able to achieve human-level performance on a broad spectrum of recognition tasks. Independently, neuromorphic computing has now demonstrated unprecedented energy-efficiency through a new chip architecture based on spiking neurons, low precision synapses, and a scalable communication network. Here, we demonstrate that neuromorphic computing, despite its novel architectural primitives, can implement deep convolution networks that (i) approach state-of-the-art classification accuracy across eight standard datasets encompassing vision and speech, (ii) perform inference while preserving the hardware’s underlying energy-efficiency and high throughput, running on the aforementioned datasets at between 1,200 and 2,600 frames/s and using between 25 and 275 mW (effectively >6,000 frames/s per Watt), and (iii) can be specified and trained using backpropagation with the same ease-of-use as contemporary deep learning. This approach allows the algorithmic power of deep learning to be merged with the efficiency of neuromorphic processors, bringing the promise of embedded, intelligent, brain-inspired computing one step closer.
Wrist-worn monitors claim to provide accurate measures of heart rate and energy expenditure. People wishing to lose weight use these devices to monitor energy balance, however the accuracy of these devices to measure such parameters has not been established.
A barrier to preventative treatments for psychosis is the absence of accurate identification of persons at highest risk. A blood test that could substantially increase diagnostic accuracy would enhance development of psychosis prevention interventions.
Combined pelvic floor electromyography (EMG) and videocystourethrography (VCUG) during urodynamic investigation are the most acceptable and widely agreed methods for diagnosing detrusor external sphincter dyssynergia (DESD). Theoretically, external urethral sphincter pressure (EUSP) measurement would provide enough information for the diagnosis of DESD and could simplify the urodynamic investigation replacing combined pelvic floor EMG and VCUG. Thus, we evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of EUSP measurement for DESD. PATIENTS #ENTITYSTARTX00026;
Segments of identity by descent (IBD) detected from high-density genetic data are useful for many applications, including long-range phase determination, phasing family data, imputation, IBD mapping and heritability analysis in founder populations. We present Refined IBD, a new method for IBD segment detection. Refined IBD achieves both computational efficiency and highly accurate IBD segment reporting by searching for IBD in two steps. The first step (identification) uses the GERMLINE algorithm to find shared haplotypes exceeding a length threshold. The second step (refinement), evaluates candidate segments with a probabilistic approach to assess the evidence for IBD. Like GERMLINE, Refined IBD allows for IBD reporting on a haplotype level, which facilitates determination of multi-individual IBD and allows for haplotype-based downstream analyses. To investigate the properties of Refined IBD, we simulate SNP data from a model with recent super-exponential population growth that is designed to match UK data. The simulation results show that Refined IBD achieves a better power/accuracy profile than fastIBD or GERMLINE. We find that a single run of Refined IBD achieves greater power than 10 runs of fastIBD. We also apply Refined IBD to SNP data for samples from the UK and from Northern Finland, and describe the IBD sharing in these data sets. Refined IBD is powerful, highly accurate, easy to use, and is implemented in Beagle version 4.
The KIPPPI (Brief Instrument Psychological and Pedagogical Problem Inventory) is a Dutch questionnaire that measures psychosocial and pedagogical problems in 2-year olds and consists of a KIPPPI Total score, Wellbeing scale, Competence scale, and Autonomy scale. This study examined the reliability, validity, screening accuracy and clinical application of the KIPPPI.
BACKGROUND: The new combination of moxifloxacin HCl and cefixime trihydrate is approved for the treatments of lower respiratory tract infections in adults. At initial formulation development and screening stage a fast and reliable method for the dissolution and release testing of moxifloxacin and cefixime were highly desirable. The zero order overlaid UV spectra of moxifloxacin and cefixime showed >90% of spectra are overlapping. Hence, simple, accurate precise and validated two derivative spectrophotometric methods have been developed for the determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime. METHODS: In the first derivative spectrophotometric method varying concentration of moxifloxacin and cefixime were prepared and scanned in the range of 200 to 400 nm and first derivative spectra were calculated (n = 1). The zero crossing wavelengths 287 nm and 317.9 nm were selected for determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime, respectively. In the second method the first derivative of ratio spectra was calculated and used for the determination of moxifloxacin and cefixime by measuring the peak intensity at 359.3 nm and 269.6 nm respectively. RESULTS: Calibration graphs were established in the range of 1–16 mug /mL and 1–15 mug /mL for both the drugs by first and ratio first derivative spectroscopic methods respectively with good correlation coefficients. Average accuracy of assay of moxifloxacin and cefixime were found to be 100.68% and 98 93%, respectively. Relative standard deviations of both inter and intraday assays were less than 1.8%. Moreover, recovery of moxifloxacin and cefixime was more than 98.7% and 99.1%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The described derivative spectrophotometric methods are simple, rapid, accurate, precise and excellent alternative to sophisticated chromatographic techniques. Hence, the proposed methods can be used for the quality control of the cited drugs and can be extended for routine analysis of the drugs in formulations.
A New extractive spectrophotometric method for determination of rizatriptan dosage forms using bromocresol green
- Daru : journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
- Published about 8 years ago
Background and the purpose of the study: Rizatriptan is used effectively for the treatment of migraine headache. In this study, a simple, rapid and low cost spectrophotometric method based on the ion-pair complexation is proposed for the determination of rizatriptan in raw material and dosage forms. METHODS: The ion-pair complexation using bromocresol green as reagent was performed in a buffer solution and the absorbance was measured by a spectrophotometer. The ion-pair formation conditions were optimized and the accuracy and precision of the method were calculated.Results and major conclusion: Best results were achieved by using 6 ml of the bromocresol green reagent in the presence of phosphate buffer (pH 3.0). The stoichiometry of the resulted complex was 1:1. The within-day and between-day precision values were lower than 2.9 and 1.8 percent for the calibration range of 0.5–50 and 10–100 mug/ml, respectively. The proposed method was successfully used for the determination of rizatriptan in dosage forms without any interference.
In the past decade, large scale mobile phone data have become available for the study of human movement patterns. These data hold an immense promise for understanding human behavior on a vast scale, and with a precision and accuracy never before possible with censuses, surveys or other existing data collection techniques. There is already a significant body of literature that has made key inroads into understanding human mobility using this exciting new data source, and there have been several different measures of mobility used. However, existing mobile phone based mobility measures are inconsistent, inaccurate, and confounded with social characteristics of local context. New measures would best be developed immediately as they will influence future studies of mobility using mobile phone data. In this article, we do exactly this. We discuss problems with existing mobile phone based measures of mobility and describe new methods for measuring mobility that address these concerns. Our measures of mobility, which incorporate both mobile phone records and detailed GIS data, are designed to address the spatial nature of human mobility, to remain independent of social characteristics of context, and to be comparable across geographic regions and time. We also contribute a discussion of the variety of uses for these new measures in developing a better understanding of how human mobility influences micro-level human behaviors and well-being, and macro-level social organization and change.
Indoor localization of persons and objects poses a great engineering challenge. Previously developed localization systems demonstrate the use of wideband techniques in ultrasound ranging systems. Direct sequence and frequency hopping spread spectrum ultrasound signals have been proven to achieve a high level of accuracy. A novel ranging method using the frequency hopping spread spectrum with finite impulse response filtering will be investigated and compared against the direct sequence spread spectrum. In the first setup, distances are estimated in a single-access environment, while in the second setup, two senders and one receiver are used. During the experiments, the micro-electromechanical systems are used as ultrasonic sensors, while the senders were implemented using field programmable gate arrays. Results show that in a single-access environment, the direct sequence spread spectrum method offers slightly better accuracy and precision performance compared to the frequency hopping spread spectrum. When two senders are used, measurements point out that the frequency hopping spread spectrum is more robust to near-far effects than the direct sequence spread spectrum.