SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: 1999 albums

83

The past few months have witnessed the most intense and prolonged criticism of England’s National Health Service (NHS) in its 65-year history. Some critics have suggested that the NHS faces a crisis that can be resolved only by altering the fundamental principle on which it was founded - provision of funding from general taxation, with care being free at the point of use. Although the criticism was sparked by a February report on an inquiry into shortcomings at one hospital,(1) the problems originated in 2010, when two profound forces were unleashed on the NHS: public-sector financial austerity and administrative reorganization. . . .

Concepts: Health care, National Health Service, Finance, 1999 albums, The Point

25

Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) results from a “premutation” size 55-200 CGG repeat expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Core motor features include cerebellar gait ataxia and kinetic tremor, resulting in progressive mobility disability. There are no published studies characterizing balance deficits in FMR1 premutation carriers with and without FXTAS using a battery of quantitative measures to test the sensory integration underlying postural control, automatic postural reflexes, and dynamic postural stability limits. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) and two performance-based balance measures were administered in 44 premutation carriers, 21 with FXTAS and 23 without FXTAS, and 42 healthy controls to compare balance and functional mobility between these groups. Relationships between FMR1 molecular variables, age, and sex and CDP scores were explored. FXTAS subjects demonstrated significantly lower scores on the sensory organization test (with greatest reductions in the vestibular control of balance), longer response latencies to balance perturbations, and reduced stability limits compared to controls. Premutation carriers without FXTAS also demonstrated significantly delayed response latencies and disrupted sensory weighting for balance control. Advancing age, male sex, increased CGG repeat size, and reduced X activation of the normal allele in premutation carrier women predicted balance dysfunction. These postural control deficits in carriers with and without FXTAS implicate dysfunctional cerebellar neural networks and may provide valuable outcome markers for tailored rehabilitative interventions. Our findings suggest that CDP may provide sensitive measures for early detection of postural control impairments in at-risk carriers and better characterize balance dysfunction and progression in FXTAS.

Concepts: Male, Allele, Ataxia, Mental retardation, Fragile X syndrome, FMR1, 1999 albums, The Fragile

19

The prevalence of neurocognitive dysfunction (NCD) and its effects on postoperative outcomes have not been well characterized following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) population. This study aims at better understand this relationship.

Concepts: Arthroplasty, 1999 albums

5

Disruptive technologies are revolutionising continuing professional development in emergency medicine and critical care (EMCC). Data on EMCC blogs and podcasts were gathered prospectively from 2002 through November 2013. During this time there was a rapid expansion of EMCC websites, from two blogs and one podcast in 2002 to 141 blogs and 42 podcasts in 2013. This paper illustrates the explosive growth of EMCC websites and provides a foundation that will anchor future research in this burgeoning field.

Concepts: Internet, Innovation, Open source, 1999 albums, Podcast, Disruptive technology, Technology in society

1

Over the past few decades, studies have demonstrated that the gut microbiota strongly influences the physiology, behavior, and fitness of its host. Such studies have been conducted primarily in humans and model organisms under controlled laboratory conditions. More recently, researchers have realized the importance of placing host-associated microbiota studies into a more ecological context; however, few non-destructive methods have been established to collect fecal samples from wild birds. Here, we present an inexpensive and easy-to-use kit for the non-invasive collection of feces from small birds. The portability of the collection kit makes this method amenable to field studies, especially those in remote areas. The main components of the collection kit include a flat-bottomed paper bag, a large modified weigh boat (tray), vinyl-coated hardware cloth fencing (grate), a clothespin, and a 10% bleach solution (to sterilize the tray and grate). In the paper bag, a sterile tray is placed under a small grate, which prevents the birds from contacting the feces and reduces the risk of contamination. After capture, the bird is placed in the bag for 3-5 min until it defecates. After the bird is removed from the bag, the tray is extracted and the fecal sample is moved to a collection tube and frozen or preserved. We believe that our method is an affordable and easy option for researchers studying the gut microbiota of wild birds.

Concepts: Gut flora, Bird, Bile, English-language films, Feces, Uric acid, 1999 albums, Cloaca

1

We identified 375 children who visited the emergency department or urgent care clinic at Children’s Mercy Hospitals & Clinics for antibiotic adverse drug reactions over a 1-year period, and the total cost for these visits was $170 893.20. Of these ADRs, 17% were likely avoidable. The potential negative consequences of antibiotics should be considered at the point of prescribing.

Concepts: Hospital, Urgent care, Adverse drug reaction, Clinic, Trauma center, Emergency department, 1999 albums, Types of healthcare facilities

1

Two-component systems (TCS) are protein machineries that enable cells to respond to input signals. Histidine kinases (HK) are the sensory component, transferring information toward downstream response regulators (RR). HKs transfer phosphoryl groups to their specific RRs, but also dephosphorylate them, overall ensuring proper signaling. The mechanisms by which HKs discriminate between such disparate directions, are yet unknown. We now disclose crystal structures of the HK:RR complex DesK:DesR from Bacillus subtilis, comprising snapshots of the phosphotransfer and the dephosphorylation reactions. The HK dictates the reactional outcome through conformational rearrangements that include the reactive histidine. The phosphotransfer center is asymmetric, poised for dissociative nucleophilic substitution. The structural bases of HK phosphatase/phosphotransferase control are uncovered, and the unexpected discovery of a dissociative reactional center, sheds light on the evolution of TCS phosphotransfer reversibility. Our findings should be applicable to a broad range of signaling systems and instrumental in synthetic TCS rewiring.

Concepts: DNA, Structure, Nucleophilic substitution, Systems theory, System, Bacillus, Bacillus subtilis, 1999 albums

1

Accurate assessment of energy expenditure (EE) is important for the study of energy balance and metabolic disorders. Combined heart rate (HR) and acceleration (ACC) sensing may increase precision of physical activity EE (PAEE) which is the most variable component of total EE (TEE).

Concepts: Metabolism, Energy, Muscle, Force, Accuracy and precision, Unified Modeling Language, Acceleration, 1999 albums

1

Post-synthetic metallation is employed strategically to imbue metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with enhanced performance characteristics. However, obtaining precise structural information for metal-centred reactions that take place within the pores of these materials has remained an elusive goal, because of issues with high symmetry in certain MOFs, lower initial crystallinity for some chemically robust MOFs, and the reduction in crystallinity that can result from carrying out post-synthetic reactions on parent crystals. Here, we report a new three-dimensional MOF possessing pore cavities that are lined with vacant di-pyrazole groups poised for post-synthetic metallation. These metallations occur quantitatively without appreciable loss of crystallinity, thereby enabling examination of the products by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. To illustrate the potential of this platform to garner fundamental insight into metal-catalysed reactions in porous solids we use single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies to structurally elucidate the reaction products of consecutive oxidative addition and methyl migration steps that occur within the pores of the Rh-metallated MOF, 1·[Rh(CO)2][Rh(CO)2Cl2].

Concepts: Crystal, Diffraction, X-ray, Crystallography, Chemical reaction, Chemistry, Solid, 1999 albums

1

Our lifestyle choices play a key role in keeping us from getting hurt or sick. Limited sleep, inactivity, and poor nutrition can increase the risk of injury and disease. Also, increasing our sleep, activity, and the quality of what we eat and drink can speed recovery from a disease or illness. Less than 70% of adults get enough sleep. Poor sleep-less than 7 to 8 hours each night-is related to depression, work-related injuries, and weight gain. In addition, less than 45% of adults get the recommended 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity daily. Inactivity is tied to chronic disease, weight gain, and poor sleep. Finally, only 30% of Americans are at a healthy weight. Poor nutrition-too much sugar and fat and not enough fruits and vegetables-is linked to disease, depression, and inadequate sleep. Recently, a panel of 36 experts from academia, government, and the military gathered to discuss how to make the healthy choice the easy choice. A summary of this meeting was published in the May 2014 issue of JOSPT. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(5):388. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.0504.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Health, Epidemiology, Nutrition, Illness, Personal life, 1999 albums