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Concept: 1001


The purpose of this study was to examine the match activity profile of U9 and U10 elite soccer players and to establish if there were any differences between players who were subsequently retained or released by their clubs. Such information should prove valuable in the design of training programs for these very young players and in the talent identification and development process. A Global Positioning System was used to analyze 2-4 inter-academy 6-a-side matches of English Premier League Academy players (U9: N = 22 and U10: N = 12) who trained three times a week (4.5 h) . Speed zones were created based on 5 and 10 m sprint times and an independent sample t-test was employed for a statistical analysis.Both squads covered ∼4000 m in total or ∼4700 m·h during a match (NS between squads), with the U10s tending to cover a greater distance at moderate (p = 0.10) and high speeds (p = 0.08) than the U9s. Retained group covered a greater distance than released group (retained vs. released: 4478 ± 513 m vs. 4091 ± 462 m, p < 0.05) during a match and covered a greater distance during low speed running in absolute (1226 ± 259 m vs. 1005 ± 221 m, p < 0.05) and relative (1325 ± 235 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h vs. 1132 ± 210 m[BULLET OPERATOR]h, p < 0.05) terms.Thus, U9 and U10 players cover over 4000 m in match play and those players who are retained by academies cover a greater distance in total and at low speeds (2.1-3.1 m·s). This information may support the preparation of squad training programs and the talent identification and development process.

Concepts: Student's t-test, Premier League, Global Positioning System, Roman numerals, Global navigation satellite system, Positioning system, 1001, Nautical mile


In the early 2000s, the ‘Awake Thoracic Surgery Research Group’ at Tor Vergata University began a program of thoracic operations in awake nonintubated patients. To our knowledge this was the first program created with this specific purpose. Since then over 1000 tubeless operations have been carried out successfully, making this series one of the widest in the world. Both nononcologic and oncologic conditions were successively approached and major operations for lung cancer are now being performed. Uniportal access was progressively adopted with significant positive outcomes in postoperative recovery, patient acceptance and economical costs. Failure rates due to patient’s intolerance and open surgery conversion are progressively reducing. Tubeless thoracic surgery can be accomplished in a safe manner with effective results.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Hospital, Surgery, VATS lobectomy, Roman numerals, 1001


One thousand one hundred and twenty subjects as well as a developmental phonagnosic subject (KH) along with age-matched controls performed the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, which assesses the ability to encode and immediately recognize, through an old/new judgment, both unfamiliar voices (delivered as vowels, making language requirements minimal) and bell sounds. The inclusion of non-vocal stimuli allows the detection of significant dissociations between the two categories (vocal vs. non-vocal stimuli). The distributions of accuracy and sensitivity scores (d') reflected a wide range of individual differences in voice recognition performance in the population. As expected, KH showed a dissociation between the recognition of voices and bell sounds, her performance being significantly poorer than matched controls for voices but not for bells. By providing normative data of a large sample and by testing a developmental phonagnosic subject, we demonstrated that the Glasgow Voice Memory Test, available online and accessible from all over the world, can be a valid screening tool (~5 min) for a preliminary detection of potential cases of phonagnosia and of “super recognizers” for voices.

Concepts: Psychology, Type I and type II errors, Human voice, Performance, 1000, Microphone, Normative, 1001


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is relatively common in the West, but rare in Japan. In the literature, there are few comparative data regarding disease severity throughout the world. The objective of this study was to compare disability in patients from a UK and a Japanese MS cohort. We retrospectively analysed the clinical features of patients with MS from a UK and Japanese MS centre. The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS), which adjusts the Expanded Disability Status Scale score according to disease duration, was used as a marker of disease severity. One thousand one hundred forty-eight UK patients and 104 Japanese patient were identified representing the relative national prevalence. Demographics and disease duration did not differ between the groups. Median MSSS was significantly different between the two groups (Japan 3.34 vs. UK 5.87, p < 0.001). Primary progressive MS was more common in the UK (12.9 %) than in the Japanese cohort (3 %, p = 0.044). The majority of Japanese patients (83.7 % vs. UK 17 %) had been exposed to disease modifying treatments (DMTs). Exposure to DMTs did not show a significant effect on disability. In conclusion, this study suggests that MS in Japan may be associated with less disability than in UK. More Japanese patients were treated with DMTs. Differences in treatments do not seem to explain the disparity in disability severity. This suggests either genetic or environmental influences on disease severity.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Multiple sclerosis, United Kingdom, Japan, 1000, Plurality voting system, 1001, Immigration to the United Kingdom since 1922


The present review highlights the progress made in plant proteomics via the introduction of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPLL) for detecting low-abundance species. Thanks to a novel approach to the CPLL methodology, namely that of performing the capture both under native and denaturing conditions, identifying plant species in the order of thousands, rather than hundreds, is now possible. We report here data on a trio of tropical fruits, namely banana, avocado and mango. The first two are classified as “recalcitrant” tissues since minute amounts of proteins (in the order of 1%) are embedded on a very large matrix of plant-specific material (e.g., polysaccharides and other plant polymers). Yet, even under these adverse conditions we could report, in a single sweep, from 1000 to 3000 unique gene products. In the case of mango the investigation has been extended to the peel too, since this skin is popularly used to flavour dishes in Far East cuisine. Even in this tough peel 330 proteins could be identified, whereas in soft peels, such lemons, one thousand unique species could be detected. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Protein, 1000, Fruit, Seed, All rights reserved, Copyright, Roman numerals, 1001


Social media sites have become an established means of communication due to the exponential growth in number of users across the world and the encouragement of interaction between users through site features. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which Loma Linda University School of Dentistry students use social media accounts, the types of accounts they prefer, their interest in incorporating social media into courses and their perceptions of the usefulness of social media in private practice. In addition, we wanted to determine the degree of student interest in the integration of these social tools into their instruction. One thousand one hundred and sixty-two students from Loma Linda University School of Dentistry were invited by e-mail to complete a confidential 18 item multiple choice survey through The overall response rate was 30% (n = 351) from the pooled response periods; the first in 2011 and the second in 2013. Similar to other studies, Facebook was used by 91% of the School of Dentistry students, and less than half used Google+, Twitter and LinkedIn. Of the respondents, 68% of students reported communicating on social media daily and 80% saw value for practising dentists to operate accounts. Time and privacy concerns were the largest barriers to usage at 16% and 12% respectively. One third of respondents were in favour of the incorporation of social media in their courses.

Concepts: 1000, Dental implant, Communication, Dentistry, Social network service, Social media, 1001, Loma Linda University School of Dentistry


Study design:A descriptive audit.Objectives:To audit the participation and satisfaction in a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC) for teaching physiotherapy students and physiotherapists about spinal cord injuries.Setting:Global and online.Methods:A 5-week MOOC about the physiotherapy management of spinal cord injuries was hosted by Physiopedia and run in partnership with the International Spinal Cord Society. The MOOC was based on the physiotherapy-specific module of, and also involved extra readings, activities and online discussion through a closed Facebook group. Participation and satisfaction was quantified through a pre- and post-MOOC knowledge assessment and an online course evaluation. Participation was also gauged through Facebook activity and internet-based usage statistics.Results:Three thousand five hundred and twenty-three people from 108 countries registered for the MOOC and 2527 joined the Facebook group. One thousand one hundred and twenty-one completed the pre- and post-MOOC knowledge assessments, with more completing one or the other. The median (interquartile range) results for those who completed the pre and post-MOOC knowledge assessments were 70% (60-80%) and 90% (80-95%), respectively. One thousand and twenty-nine completed the online course evaluation, with more than 80% agreeing or strongly agreeing with 12 of the 13 positive statements posed to them about the course.Conclusion:Most participants who completed the MOOC performed well on the post-MOOC knowledge assessment and enjoyed the learning experience. However, these results may be biased if those who did not complete the MOOC were dissatisfied and/or did not sit the post-MOOC knowledge assessment.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 21 October 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.174.

Concepts: Evaluation, Education, Assessment, 1000, Integers, 1, 1001, Facebook


OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study is to determine the patient compliance with and diagnostic yield of 18-month unilateral mammography in surveillance of probably benign (BI-RADS category 3) lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This retrospective study identified lesions prospectively classified BI-RADS 3 in asymptomatic women from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2008. Surveillance protocol for BI-RADS 3 lesions included 6-month (unilateral), 12-month (bilateral), 18-month (unilateral), and 24-month (bilateral) imaging, with subsequent annual screening. Demographics, surveillance data, BI-RADS upgrades and downgrades, and biopsy results were abstracted from the longitudinal medical record. RESULTS. One thousand one hundred eighty-eight lesions in 1077 patients (mean age, 51.5 years; age range, 26-89 years) had BI-RADS 3 assessment, representing 1.07% of all screening examinations. The compliance rates for follow-up at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were 83.3%, 75.9%, 54.8%, and 53.9%, respectively. Sixty lesions were upgraded to BI-RADS 4 or 5 during surveillance. Biopsy revealed 15 cancers (cancer yield of 1.47%) from 1017 lesions with either 24-month imaging stability or tissue diagnosis available. Five, six, one, and three cancers were detected at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. Cancers were all stage 0 or 1 except for one stage 2A cancer. Seven hundred forty-four of 1188 (62.6%) BI-RADS 3 lesions were downgraded before completing 2-year surveillance. CONCLUSION. Most (11/15 [73%]) breast cancers initially assessed as BI-RADS 3 are diagnosed at up to 12 months' surveillance. Eighteen-month unilateral mammography performed as BI-RADS 3 surveillance contributes minimally to cancer detection and has poor patient compliance.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Cancer staging, Biopsy, Mammography, Upgrade, Roman numerals, 1001


Studies on interaction of graphene with radiation are important because of nanolithographic processes in graphene-based electronic devices and for space applications. Since the electronic properties of graphene are highly sensitive to the defects and number of layers in graphene sample, it is desirable to develop tools to engineer these two parameters. We report swift heavy ion (SHI) irradiation-induced annealing and purification effects in graphene films, similar to that observed in our studies on fullerenes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Raman studies after irradiation with 100-MeV Ag ions (fluences from 3 x 1010 to 1 x 1014 ions/cm2) show that the disorder parameter alpha, defined by ID/IG ratio, decreases at lower fluences but increases at higher fluences beyond 1 x 1012 ions/cm2. This indicates that SHI induces annealing effects at lower fluences. We also observe that the number of graphene layers is reduced at fluences higher than 1 x 1013 ions/cm2. Using inelastic thermal spike model calculations, we estimate a radius of 2.6 nm for ion track core surrounded by a halo extending up to 11.6 nm. The transient temperature above the melting point in the track core results in damage, whereas lower temperature in the track halo is responsible for annealing. The results suggest that SHI irradiation fluence may be used as one of the tools for defect annealing and manipulation of the number of graphene layers.

Concepts: Carbon, Graphite, Silver, Glass, Roman numerals, 1, 1001, Collision cascade


Abstract The αIIb cytoplasmic domain of platelet integrin αIIbβ3 contains an unorganized acidic membrane-distal (1000)LEEDDEEGE(1008) region. We have shown that a platelet permeable peptide corresponding to the above region the palmitoyl-K-LEEDDEEGE (pal-K-1000-1008) inhibits platelet aggregation induced by thrombin or by pal-K-989-995, a palmitoylated peptide corresponding to the membrane-proximal αIIb cytoplasmic domain (989)KVGFFKR(995). We now tested the anti-aggregatory activity of (i) a lipid-modified scrambled acidic peptide (pal-K-GDDEELEEE), (ii) two smaller peptides derived from the acidic amino sequence: palmitoyl-K-(1000)LEEDDE(1005) (pal-K-1000-1005) and palmitoyl-K-(1005)EEGE(1008) (pal-K-1005-1008) and (iii) lipid-modified palmitoyl-acidic peptides with alanine (Ala) substitution at residues 1001, 1003, 1004 and 1005 and one peptide with a double Ala substitution at residues 1001 and 1004 of the 1000-1008 sequence. All the peptides tested showed an inhibitory activity, however, the palmitoylated peptide with the natural and the whole acidic sequence, being the most active. Our results suggest that the whole acidic sequence, rather than some specific amino acids, contributes to the aggregation inhibitory activity. The inhibitory peptide, pal-K-1000-1008, inhibited the association of talin with αIIbβ3 in thrombin-activated platelets, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation experiments, while the scrambled peptide was inefficient. We suggest that, by interacting with αIIb cytoplasmic domain, pal-K-1000-1008 has an anti-aggregatory inhibitory activity due to a specific inhibition of talin binding to αIIbβ3.

Concepts: Protein, Amino acid, Acid, Amine, Platelet, Peptide, Roman numerals, 1001