Background Worry about deportation has been associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors in cross-sectional research. No research has evaluated this association longitudinally or examined the association between deportation worry and incident cardiovascular disease outcomes. Methods and Results We used data from an ongoing community-based cohort of 572 women primarily of Mexican origin. We estimated associations between self-reported deportation worry and: (1) trajectories of blood pressure, body mass index, and waist circumference with linear mixed models, and (2) incident hypertension with Cox proportional hazards models. Nearly half (48%) of women reported “a lot,” 24% reported “moderate,” and 28% reported “not too much” deportation worry. Higher worry at baseline was associated with nonlinear systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure trajectories. For example, compared with not too much worry, a lot of worry was associated with a faster initial increase (β, interaction with linear year term: 4.10; 95% CI, 1.17-7.03) followed by a faster decrease in systolic blood pressure (β, interaction with quadratic year term: -0.80; 95% CI, -1.55 to -0.06). There was weak evidence of an association between deportation worry and diastolic blood pressure and no association with body mass index, waist circumference, or pulse pressure trajectories. Among 408 women without baseline hypertension, reporting a lot (hazard ratio, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.15-4.10) and moderate deportation worry (hazard ratio, 2.48; 95% CI, 1.17-4.30) were each associated with greater risk of incident hypertension compared with reporting not too much worry. Conclusions Deportation worry may contribute to widening disparities in some cardiovascular disease risk factors and outcomes over time.
Binge and heavy drinking are preventable causes of mortality and morbidity. Alcohol consumption by women who parent is damaging to child health, and it is concerning that women in the United States in their reproductive years have experienced increased drinking over the past decade. Although media attention has focused on the drinking status of women who are child-rearing, it remains unclear whether binge and heavy drinking vary by parenting status and sex.
The living world is largely divided into autotrophs that convert CO2 into biomass and heterotrophs that consume organic compounds. In spite of widespread interest in renewable energy storage and more sustainable food production, the engineering of industrially relevant heterotrophic model organisms to use CO2 as their sole carbon source has so far remained an outstanding challenge. Here, we report the achievement of this transformation on laboratory timescales. We constructed and evolved Escherichia coli to produce all its biomass carbon from CO2. Reducing power and energy, but not carbon, are supplied via the one-carbon molecule formate, which can be produced electrochemically. Rubisco and phosphoribulokinase were co-expressed with formate dehydrogenase to enable CO2 fixation and reduction via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle. Autotrophic growth was achieved following several months of continuous laboratory evolution in a chemostat under intensifying organic carbon limitation and confirmed via isotopic labeling.
To determine the prevalence of burnout in doctors practising obstetrics and gynaecology, and assess the association with defensive medical practice and self-reported well-being.
Intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) junctions constitute a robust barrier to invasion by viruses, bacteria and exposure to ingested agents. Previous studies showed that microgravity compromises the human immune system and increases enteropathogen virulence. However, the effects of microgravity on epithelial barrier function are poorly understood. The aims of this study were to identify if simulated microgravity alters intestinal epithelial barrier function (permeability), and susceptibility to barrier-disrupting agents. IECs (HT-29.cl19a) were cultured on microcarrier beads in simulated microgravity using a rotating wall vessel (RWV) for 18 days prior to seeding on semipermeable supports to measure ion flux (transepithelial electrical resistance (TER)) and FITC-dextran (FD4) permeability over 14 days. RWV cells showed delayed apical junction localization of the tight junction proteins, occludin and ZO-1. The alcohol metabolite, acetaldehyde, significantly decreased TER and reduced junctional ZO-1 localization, while increasing FD4 permeability in RWV cells compared with static, motion and flask control cells. In conclusion, simulated microgravity induced an underlying and sustained susceptibility to epithelial barrier disruption upon removal from the microgravity environment. This has implications for gastrointestinal homeostasis of astronauts in space, as well as their capability to withstand the effects of agents that compromise intestinal epithelial barrier function following return to Earth.
Thermal imaging has been applied to detect possible temperature variations in various rheumatic disorders. This study sought to determine whether rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients without active synovitis in their hands exhibit different baseline thermographic patterns of the fingers and palms when compared to healthy individuals. Data from 31 RA patients were compared to that of 51 healthy controls. The RA patients were recruited upon confirmed absence of synovitis by clinical examination and musculoskeletal ultrasound. Participants underwent medical infrared imaging of the regions of interest (ROIs). Significant differences were found between the mean temperatures of the palm regions (29.37 °C (SD2.2); n = 306) and fingers (27.16 °C (SD3.2); n = 510) of the healthy participants when compared to the palm regions (31.4(SD1.84)°C; n = 186) and fingers (30.22 °C (SD2.4); n = 299) of their RA counterparts (p = 0.001), with the latter group exhibiting higher temperatures in all ROIs. Logistic regression models confirm that both palm and finger temperature increase significantly in RA without active inflammation. These innovative findings provide evidence that baseline thermal data in RA differs significantly from healthy individuals. Thermal imaging may have the potential to become an adjunct assessment method of disease activity in patients with RA.
How neural circuits develop in the human brain has remained almost impossible to study at the neuronal level. Here, we investigate human cortical neuron development, plasticity, and function using a mouse/human chimera model in which xenotransplanted human cortical pyramidal neurons integrate as single cells into the mouse cortex. Combined neuronal tracing, electrophysiology, and in vivo structural and functional imaging of the transplanted cells reveal a coordinated developmental roadmap recapitulating key milestones of human cortical neuron development. The human neurons display a prolonged developmental timeline, indicating the neuron-intrinsic retention of juvenile properties as an important component of human brain neoteny. Following maturation, human neurons in the visual cortex display tuned, decorrelated responses to visual stimuli, like mouse neurons, demonstrating their capacity for physiological synaptic integration in host cortical circuits. These findings provide new insights into human neuronal development and open novel avenues for the study of human neuronal function and disease. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
To determine how the UK National Health Service (NHS) is performing relative to health systems of other high income countries, given that it is facing sustained financial pressure, increasing levels of demand, and cuts to social care.
Liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) has been recognized as one of the key cellular organizing principles and was shown to be responsible for formation of membrane-less organelles such as nucleoli. Although nucleoli were found to behave like liquid droplets, many ramifications of LLPS including nucleolar dynamics and interactions with the surrounding liquid remain to be revealed. Here, we study the motion of human nucleoli in vivo, while monitoring the shape of the nucleolus-nucleoplasm interface. We reveal two types of nucleolar pair dynamics: an unexpected correlated motion prior to coalescence and an independent motion otherwise. This surprising kinetics leads to a nucleolar volume distribution, [Formula: see text], unaccounted for by any current theory. Moreover, we find that nucleolus-nucleoplasm interface is maintained by ATP-dependent processes and susceptible to changes in chromatin transcription and packing. Our results extend and enrich the LLPS framework by showing the impact of the surrounding nucleoplasm on nucleoli in living cells.
Computational modeling of behavior has revolutionized psychology and neuroscience. By fitting models to experimental data we can probe the algorithms underlying behavior, find neural correlates of computational variables and better understand the effects of drugs, illness and interventions. But with great power comes great responsibility. Here, we offer ten simple rules to ensure that computational modeling is used with care and yields meaningful insights. In particular, we present a beginner-friendly, pragmatic and details-oriented introduction on how to relate models to data. What, exactly, can a model tell us about the mind? To answer this, we apply our rules to the simplest modeling techniques most accessible to beginning modelers and illustrate them with examples and code available online. However, most rules apply to more advanced techniques. Our hope is that by following our guidelines, researchers will avoid many pitfalls and unleash the power of computational modeling on their own data.