The Pediatric infectious disease journal | 30 Nov 2012
A Srinivasan, Z Gu, T Smith, M Morgenstern, A Sunkara, G Kang, DK Srivastava, AH Gaur, W Leung and RT Hayden
BACKGROUND:: The data on human rhinovirus (HRV), coronavirus (hCoV), bocavirus (hBoV), metapneumovirus (hMPV), Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Bordetella pertussis infections in children with cancer is limited. METHODS:: We sought to determine prospectively the prevalence of respiratory pathogens in these children, using multiplexed-PCR. RESULTS:: We enrolled 253 children with upper, or lower respiratory tract infection (URTI/LRTI) during a one year period. A respiratory virus was detected in 193 (76%) patients; 156 (81%) patients had URTI. Human rhinovirus was the most common virus detected in 97 (62%) and 24 (65%) patients with URTI and LRTI, respectively. Leukemia or lymphoma (LL) was the most common underlying diagnosis in 95 (49%) patients followed by solid tumor 47 (24%), post-hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) 28 (15%), and brain tumor in 23 (12%) patients. By multiple logistic regression analysis hBoV was the most commonly detected respiratory virus in patients with LRTI (P = 0.008; odds ratio, 4.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-13.79). Co-infection with more than 1 virus was present in 47 (24%) patients, and did not increase the risk for LRTI. Two (0.7%) patients succumbed to LRTI from parainfluenza virus (PIV)-3 and respiratory syncytial virus/HRV infection, respectively. C.pneumoniae and M.pneumoniae were detected in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:: HRV was the most common virus detected in children with cancer and post-HCT hospitalized with an acute respiratory illness, and was not associated with increased morbidity. Prospective studies with viral load determination and asymptomatic controls are needed to study the association of these emerging respiratory viruses with LRTI in children with cancer and post-HCT.
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