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Acquired spondylolysis and spinopelvic sagittal alignment

European journal of orthopaedic surgery & traumatology : orthopedie traumatologie | 24 Mar 2018

F Vazifehdan, VG Karantzoulis and VG Igoumenou
Abstract
Acquired spondylolysis represents an uncommon complication of spine surgery, of an unknown incidence and etiology. We studied patients presenting this rare entity, with the purpose to investigate the incidence, imaging findings, patients' clinical characteristics, as well as to provide an interpretation of the mechanisms that may lead to this phenomenon. The presented working hypothesis, regarding etiology, suggests that there is a relation between variations in spinopelvic sagittal alignment and acquired spondylolysis. Between January 2010 and January 2015, six patients presented spondylolysis after short-segment transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, at a mean time of 43 months after surgery. The preoperative intactness and postoperative defect of pars interarticularis were documented with computed tomography scans in all patients. Standard radiographical spinopelvic parameters were measured before and after surgery. The optimum values of lumbar lordosis (LL) and pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis modifier (PI-LL mismatch) were calculated as well. The incidence of acquired spondylolysis was 0.95% among patients with short-segment lumbar fusion. Patients presented high-grade PI with a vertically orientated sacral endplate, while LL was found 9° greater and PI-LL mismatch 9° lower than the respective optimum values, indicating a non-harmonized alignment. In conclusion, acquired spondylolysis, though rare, may occur in patients with high-grade PI and sacral slope, and suboptimal spinopelvic sagittal alignment after lumbar spine surgery, thereby highlighting the importance of detailed preoperative planning in spine surgery, along with the study of sagittal balance.
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Concepts
Medicine, Vertebra, Skeletal system, Vertebral column, Lordosis, Lumbar vertebrae, Pars interarticularis, Spondylolysis
MeSH headings
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